Archive for October 2011

Jobs after M.Tech in Mechanical Engineering

October 10, 2011

Post graduation in Mechanical engineering is good mainly from academic and industry research perspective. They have reasonable opportunities, more abroad than India because of the presence of lot of manufacturing firms. Germany, Korea, Japan, and US are some of those countries where mechanical engineers, especially with specialization in automobile engineering can find good jobs. In India, jobs are relatively less fitting a post graduation in mechanical engineering. There is very little research happening in manufacturing sector in India.

 

Private Sector Jobs after M.Tech in Mechanical Engineering

Students who possess a postgraduate degree in mechanical engineering or an additional degree in management can find jobs with the managerial or administrative departments of pioneer industries in the private sector. If they choose, it is also possible for them to go for industry research. Other opportunities are:

  • Teaching in Engineering Colleges
  • Consultant in transportation, logistics and automobile engineering firms
  • IT firms like IBM and Wipro take post graduate mechanical engineers in their software division which supports automobile engineering giants like Ford and other heavy machinery manufacturing giants.
  • Automobile, piping, power sector
  • Fundamental pre-sea training or a program in nautical science to join as navigating officers or marine engineers.

Government Sector Jobs after M.Tech in Mechanical Engineering

Simultaneously, there are a lot of career opportunities that are made available for postgraduate students of Mechanical engineering. Freshers can join as Junior Engineers and there is a possibility that skilled engineers can get promoted to the positions of Assistant Engineers, Assistant Executive Engineers and Executive Engineers in public sector firms which are into multiple areas of manufacturing sector like power plants, machinery plans like HAL and so on. The top most position a mechanical engineer can attain is Superintendent Engineer. These engineers are wanted in field like

 

 

  • Automobile
  • Oil exploration and Refineries
  • Machine tools
  • Mining
  • Heavy Machineries
  • Space Exploration
  • Electronics firms, etc.

Oil manufacturing firms like HPCL offer good opportunities too. In addition to this, the technical divisions of the Defense as well as the space research organization also need mechanical engineers. On top of this, the field of agriculture also gives a big importance to mechanical engineers. Here, engineers are required to manufacture as well as design the equipments needed to enhance the yield of crops.

Job Prospects Abroad after M.Tech in Mechanical Engineering

There are quite a few job opportunities that are available for postgraduates of Mechanical Engineering. Many leading international private as well as government firms employ Mechanical Engineers for research purposes. There are top quality research centres of excellence in mechanical engineering field. Some top notch firms who take in post graduate mechanical engineers are Siemens, Ford and so on.

List of mechanical core companies in India

October 10, 2011

Dear Friend,

Don’t think about the job as you are a student of an evergreen as well as a core branch i.e.,Mechanical stream.

there are so many chances in Govt. as well as private companies.

There huge number of Core Companies for Mechanical engineer.
some of them are:

1:Hindustan Motors Ltd
2:Hyundai Motors India Ltd
3:Mahindra & Mahindra
4:Royal Enfield Ltd
5:Addison & Co Ltd
6:Ashok Leyland Ltd, Ennore
7:Axles India Ltd
8:TATA Motors
9:Sundaram-Clayton Ltd
10:Tractor and Farm Equipment (TAFE)
11:Tube Investments of India Ltd
12:FIAT
13:Bharat Electronics Ltd.(BEL)
14:Jindal Steel
15:Steel Authority of India Limited(SAIL)
16:Geometrics ,The Developers software for Machine Companies etc…..

Good luck!!!
Good luck!!!

Produce Electricity From Solar Heat

October 4, 2011

01-solar thermal power conversion-beam radiation-direct normal irradiation-Solar-Power-in-Florida-turning solar heat into electricity

The principles of solar thermal power conversion have been known for more than a century; its commercial scale-up and exploitation, however, has only taken place since the mid 1980s. With these first large-scale 30-80 MW parabolic trough power stations, built in the California Mojave desert, the technology has impressively demonstrated its technological and economic promise. With few adverse environmental impacts and a massive resource, the sun, it offers an opportunity to the countries in the sun belt of the world comparable to that currently being offered by offshore wind farms to European and other nations with the windiest shorelines.

01-direct radiation-solar radiation-electromagnetic radiation-solar collectors-insolation

Solar thermal power can only use direct sunlight, called ‘beam radiation’ or Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI), i.e. that fraction of sunlight which is not deviated by clouds, fumes or dust in the atmosphere and that reaches the earth’s surface in parallel beams for concentration. Hence, it must be sited in regions with high direct solar radiation. Suitable sites should receive at least 2,000 kilowatt hours (kWh) of sunlight radiation per m2annually, whilst best site locations receive more than 2,800 kWh/m2/year.

01-solar panels-solar power energy-solar power system-diagram_solar_power-produce electricity from solar energy example

In many regions of the world, one square kilometer of land is enough to generate as much as 100-130 Giga watt hours (GWh) of solar electricity per year using solar thermal technology. This is equivalent to the annual production of a 50 MW conventional coal- or gas-fired mid-load power plants. Over the total life cycle of a solar thermal power system, its output would be equivalent to the energy contained in more than    5 million barrels of oil2).

TURNING SOLAR HEAT INTO ELECTRICITY

01-illustration_trough_collector_from_sunlight-solar collector assembly-parabolic trough solar collector

Producing electricity from the energy in the sun’s rays is a straightforward process: direct solar radiation can be concentrated and collected by a range of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies to provide medium- to high temperature heat.

01-concentrating solar power plants-CSP Technologies-Concentrating solar power technologies-direct solar radiation process-parabolic solar trough collectors

This heat is then used to operate a conventional power cycle, for example through a steam turbine or a Stirling engine. Solar heat collected during the day can also be stored in liquid or solid media such as molten salts, ceramics, concrete or, in the future, phase-changing salt mixtures. At night, it can be extracted from the storage medium thereby continuing turbine operation.

Personal Flying Jetpack Machine

October 4, 2011

silver-jetpack-martin aviation company-himmelsturner       

This Jetpack consists of a built-in gasoline engine driving twin ducted fans which produce sufficient thrust to lift the aircraft and a pilot in vertical takeoff and landing, enabling sustained flight.

01-martin-aircraft-jetpack-commercial jetpack manufacturers-personal flying  machine jetpack- jetpack machines

Jetpack Development:


Since the beginning of time man has dreamed of personal flight – the ability to fly as free as birds and escape gravity’s pull.

From the 1920s this dream has been refined in film, books and television, with the jetpack portrayed as the ultimate tool for the freedom of flight.

In the 1950s the first serious attempts at building a jetpack produced the Bell Rocket Belt. But the Bell Rocket Belt has some limitations. It is powered by an expensive and hazardous fuel, needs a light weight pilot, is incredibly hard to fly, and, after 50 years of development can only fly for 30 seconds. It is not the practical jetpack the world has been waiting for.

In 1981, as a New Zealand student, started his quest to a build a jetpack that overcame the limitations of the Rocket Belt. With enthusiasm and commitment Glenn has been able to capture the support of a large network of experts who shared his dream.

01-jetpack-30 minutes of flight time-gasoline engine-two ducted fans

The rest is history. On 29 July 2008, the world’s first practical jetpack, was revealed to the world and became an international media sensation.

Jetpack Technology:

01-carbon fibre composite jetpack-VTOL-vertical take off and landing aircraft- fan jet technology-martin-aircraft-jetpack-commercial jetpack manufacturers-personal flying  machine jetpack

The Jetpack is constructed from carbon fiber composite, has a dry weight of 250 lbs (excluding safety equipment) and measures 5 ft high x 5.5 ft wide x 5 ft long. It’s driven by a 2.0 L V4 2 stroke engine rated at 200 hp (150 kw), can reach 8000 ft (estimated) and each of the two 1.7 ft wide rotors is made from carbon / Kevlar composite.

There is always risk associated with flying so the Aircraft has been careful to equip the pack with redundant systems that will take over in the event that the main system goes down. If a crash-landing is required, a pilot-operated toggle will rapidly fire a small amount of propellant deploying a ballistic parachute (similar to a car airbag) which will allow the pilot and jetpack to descend together. It also has an impact-absorbing carriage, patented fan jet technology and 1000 hours engine TBO (Time Between Overhaul). Small vertical take-off and landing aircraft (VTOL) are not subject to the same limitations as other helicopters and fixed wing aircrafts but Aircraft have built it to comply with ultra light regulations and therefore suggest it as at least as safe to operate, and claim it is the safest of all jetpacks yet built.

01-jetpack-a personal aircraft

The Jetpack achieves with 30 minutes of flight time and is fueled by regular premium gasoline.

Safety Development:

Roll cage:

01-steel roll cage

roll cage is a specially constructed frame built in (or sometimes around) the cab of a vehicle to protect its occupants from being injured in an accident, particularly in the event of a roll-over. A roll bar is a single bar behind the driver that provides moderate roll-over protection. Due to the lack of a protective top, some modern convertibles utilize a strong windscreen frame acting as a roll bar. Also, a roll hoop may be placed behind both headrests, which is essentially a roll bar spanning the width of a passenger’s shoulders.

Factor Of Safety:

The Jetpack has a number of mechanical things moving fast….a drive train, Fan jets. All these are designed with far higher “factors of safety” (FOS) than is normal for an aircraft. This was done because of the newness of the design and to cover for unforeseen factors. For instance the Fan blades have a FOS of 5, at the hub and over 10 at the blade.

Parachute:

01-parachute-in aircrafts-jetpacks

Production versions of the Jetpack are equipped with a Ballistic Parachute system from Ballistic Recovery Systems. This enables the pilot to be saved from a catastrophic failure down to a reasonably low altitude. Ballistic parachutes can open at very low altitudes, particularly if the aircraft has some forward speed. For this reason the “flight profiles” will be calculated to have the lowest risk possible.

01-jetpack-parachute compartment-flying controls-twin turbo jets

Application:

  • Emergency response,
  • Defense and recreation, with numerous applications in each sector.

Spiral Tube Ink Refilling

October 4, 2011

ballpoint pen is a writing instrument with an internal ink reservoir and a sphere for a point. The internal chamber is filled with a viscous ink that is dispensed at its tip during use by the rolling action of a small sphere.


 01-Spiral Ink refill-Ink Refill-Ball Point pen refills-double ink capacity ball point pens-double helix pen-spiral pen tubes

There are two basic types of ball point pens:

  • Disposable
  • Refillable.

Disposable pens are chiefly made of plastic throughout and discarded when the ink is consumed; Refillable pens are metal and some plastic and tend to be much higher in price. The refill replaces the entire internal ink reservoir and ball point unit rather than actually refilling it with ink, as it takes special high-speed centrifugation to properly fill a ball point reservoir with the viscous ink. The simplest types of ball point pens have a cap to cover the tip when the pen is not in use, while others have a mechanism for retracting the tip. This mechanism is usually controlled by a button at the top and powered by a spring within the pen body, but other possibilities include a pair of buttons, a screw, or a slide.

02-Spiral Ink refill-Ink Refill-Ball Point pen refills-double ink capacity ball point pens-double helix pen-spiral pen tubes

Think about it, instead of having a straight tube ink refill, how about fashioning it as a spiral? Agreed it occupies a bit more space so the pen can’t be sleek and slim, but it holds double the amount of ink! There’s a reason why our DNA is structured in a double helix. I guess it will work like a charm for those disposable types, making them last longer.

Graphene The Material Of The Future

October 4, 2011

      01-graphene-a ultra thin material-graphene extraction from graphite-tracing graphene from graphite-graphite_pencilThe graphene is a substance which has a single-layer crystal lattice of carbon atoms, which is unusual since it is different from all of the materials of its kind. Several researchers have identified a way of making this substance, which allows them to use it in various fields and especially for the high-speed electronic devices.

01-graphene layer-graphene lattice parameters-graphene growth-Graphene_from_gases_for_new,_bendable_electronics_

Graphene Definition:

Graphene is defined as a one atom thin sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a Hexagonal format or a flat monolayer of carbon atoms that are tightly packed into a 2D honeycomb lattice.


01-graphene hexagonal layer-graphene lattice parameters-graphene growth

History:

In October 2010, two University of Manchester (U.K.) scientists, Andre Geim and Konstantin Novolselov, were awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in physics for their research on graphene. Graphene is a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon whose strength, flexibility, and electrical conductivity have opened up new horizons for high-energy particle physics research and electronic, optical, and energy applications.

01-flexible graphene sheet-with silver electrodes printed on it-touch screen graphene sheets-transparent electrodes-flexible transparent electronics

Graphene properties:

Graphene oxide, a single-atomic-layered material made by reacting graphite powders with strong oxidizing agents, has the ability to easily convert into graphene a low-cost carbon-based transparent and flexible electronics.

Graphene Oxide:

Graphene oxide has been known in the scientific world for more than a century and was largely described as hydrophilic, or attracted to water. These graphene oxide sheets behave like surfactants, the chemicals in soap and shampoo that make stains disperse in water.

01-mechanosynthesis-graphene bonding-graphene scaling-graphene sheet material formation-graphene zipper like bond rearrangement-graphene_into_nanotube

Mechanical Properties:

Young’s Modulus:

01-various material properties-Youngs modulus of different materials-Graphene properties

01-graphene electrical properties-graphene electrical conductivity-1000 times faster than silicon-bendable graphene battery concept-flexible-graphene-battery-concept

1. Graphene sheets stack to form graphite with an interplanar spacing of 0.335 nm, which means that a stack of 3 million sheets would be only one millimeter thick.

2. Graphene is a Zero Gap Semiconductor. So it has a high electron mobility at room temperature. It’s a Superconductor. Electron transfer is 100 times faster then Silicon.

3. Graphene has a record breaking strength of 200 times greater than steel, with a tensile strength of 130GPa.

4. Graphene can be used to create circuits that are almost superconducting, potentially speeding electronic components by as much as 1000 times.

5. Graphene electrodes used in lithium-ion batteries could reduce recharge times from two hours to about 10 minutes.

Graphene Production:

01-chemical vapor deposition techniques-chemical vapour deposition-CVD -graphene production-graphene fabrication-discovery of graphene

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) are two other potential routes to Graphene growth.

Applications:

01-graphene applications-graphene touch pad electronics gadgets-touch phones made from graphene-graphene technology-flexiphone

  • New devices like Touch screens, Micro Displays and Monitors
  • Chip Making, Circuit Designs
  • Solar cells
  • Micro Fuel Cells
  • Air Bag Deployment Systems and Gyroscopes in Car Electronic Stability Control
  • Pressure Sensors, Micro Tips & probes

Artificial Leaf Solar Power

October 3, 2011

Photosynthesis:

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protists use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which cellular respiration converts into ATP, the “fuel” used by all living things. The conversion of unusable sunlight energy into usable chemical energy, is associated with the actions of the green pigment chlorophyll.

They release molecular oxygen and remove CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) from the air.

ATP: Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP)  Here the energy is stored in living systems; it consists of a Nucleotide (with Ribose sugar) with Three Phosphate groups.

Why is photosynthesis important:

01-photosynthesis-green pigment chlorophyll-ATP-Adenosine Tri-Phosphate

Nearly all living things depend on the energy produced from photosynthesis for their nourishment. Animals need the plants for food as well as oxygen. Only green plants are able to change light energy into chemical energy stored in food, thus they are vital to life on Earth.

Solar cells:

01-solar cells-photovoltaic cells-silicon semiconductor material-silicon cells-solar wall paper

Conventional solar cells are also called as Photo Voltaic Cells. These cells are made out of semiconducting material, usually silicon. When light hits the cells, they absorb energy though photons. This absorbed energy knocks out electrons in the silicon, allowing them to flow. By adding different impurities to the silicon such as phosphorus or boron, an electric field can be established. This electric field acts as a diode, because it only allows electrons to flow in one direction. Consequently, the end result is a current of electrons, better known to us as electricity.


Drawbacks of Solar cells:

They can only achieve efficiencies around 10% and they are expensive to manufacture. The first drawback, inefficiency, is almost unavoidable with silicon cells. This is because the incoming photons, or light, must have the right energy, called the band gap energy, to knock out an electron. If the photon has less energy than the band gap energy then it will pass through. If it has more energy than the band gap, then that extra energy will be wasted as heat.

Artificial Leaf:

Mixing of Photosynthesis + Conventional Solar Cells + Hydrogen Fuel Cell

26 Sept. 2011, Cambridge, MA - MIT professor Daniel Nocera has developed an artificial leaf chip that can split water molecules using light. Photo by Dominick Reuter

This Leaf device combines a commercially available solar cell (Silicon) with a pair of inexpensive catalysts made of Cobalt and Nickel that split water into Oxygen and Hydrogen. The hydrogen can be stored and used as an energy source. (For example to power a fuel cell).

The collection and storage of the sun’s energy as hydrogen fuel is a key step in overcoming one of the limitations of solar power — it generates energy when the sun is shining, but it needs to be stored somewhere to be useful at night and in cloudy weather. Batteries are one place to store the energy, but it is limited. Storing solar energy as hydrogen fuel could be an answer for producing the electricity continuously.

01-bubbles formation-production of electricity from hydrogen bubbles-artificial leaf hydrogen-electricity production


Using this approach, a solar panel roughly one square meter bathed in water could produce enough hydrogen to supply electricity for a house.