Archive for the ‘PROJECTS’ category

List of projects for final year mechanical engineering students

October 30, 2012

Two Axis Sliding Table
Single Axis Sliding Table
Sliding Table for Grinding Machine
Automatic Blanking Machine
Automatic PVC Pipe Cutting Machine
Automatic Injection Molding
Fabrication of Drilling M/C with Tapping Attachment
Agitator
Fabrication of Wind Mill
Solar Water Heater
Fabricating of Micro Holes Driller
Pneumatic Door Opener
Pneumatic Hand Drilling
Chicken Skin Peeler
Fabrication of Automatic Cone Winding
Fabrication of Pulverize
Fabrication of Automatic Envelope Folding Machine
Automatic Hammer Striker
Fabrication of Coil Winding Machine
Sheet Metal Bend Removing Machine
Fabrication of Yarn Pigment Tester
Fabrication of Key Way Milling Machine
Fabrication of Tilt able Extension Ladder
Fabrication of Duplicate Key Making Machine
Automated Dimensioning Machine
Automatic Drilling Machine
Pneumatic Punching Machine
Automatic Coil Winding Machine
Gas Monitoring System
CNC Bar Feeding Machine
Fabrication of Spring Rolling Machine
Fabrication of Sheet Metal Cutting
Fabrication of Drilling M/C with Key Way Attachment
Indexing Table for Drilling Machine
Pneumatic Cylinder
Hydraulic Cylinder
Design of Effluent Treatment Plant
Automatic filing system
Single Cylinder Double Acting Pump
Solar Based Oven
CNC Thermo Coal Cutting Machine
Paint Mixing Machine
Automatic Cone Releaser
Automatic Sealing Machine
Pneumatic Hand Grinder
Band Saw Cutting Machine
Manual Injection Molding
Fabrication of Drilling Machine with Variable Speed Drive In Level Method
Fabrication of Drilling Machine with Variable Speed Drive In Screw Method
Fabrication of Oven
Jigs And Fixtures
Fabrication of Hydraulic Press
Mini Milling Machine
Metal Detector
Fabrication of Semi-Automatic Ramming M/C
Design & Fabrication of Soft Start Couplings
Motorized Power Jack
Automatic Crane System
Auto Gearing System
Remote Material Handler
Hydraulic Noodles Machine
Automatic Bar Feeding Mechanism
Hydraulic Scissor Jack
Hydraulic Screw Jack
Automated Material Transferring System
Conveyer For Industries
Automatic filling system
Automatic car shutter
Automatic steering controlled lead lamps
Remote controlled wheel chair
ABC controlling through switch
Slave robots
Artificial arm
Inspection system using PC
Machining status informer
Fabrication for Slotting Machine
Fabrication of Pipe Bending Machine
Gear Indicator for two Wheelers
Automatic Vice Control for Bar Feeding Machine
Automatic Quality Testing System
Automatic Poor Quality Rejecter
Bottle Vending Machine
Hydraulic Power Pack
Motorized Door Opener
Plant automation
Simultaneous operations through flow process
Operation method rewinding and analyzing
Process retrievals and its drilling operation
Automated lead screw jaws
Automatic bench marking system
Contact less automatic door opener
Operation identification system
Threading machine with Programmable Controller
Hydro Pneumatic Vice
Auto Braking System
Coin Vending Machine
Automated Threading Machine

ROBOTIC ARM INTERFACING WITH PC/MCU/ IR/RF

  1. HYDRAULIC LIFT
  2. HYDRAULIC JACK MACHINE
  3. LINE FOLLOWER OR TRACING ROBOT
  4. AUTOMATED WALKING ROBOT
  5. DIGITAL SPEED MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR AUTOMOBILE
  6. LIFT CONTROL USING PC AND MCU
  7. ESCALATOR LIFT USING PC & MCU
  8. PATH FINDER MOBILE ROBOT
  9. MULTILEVEL CAR PARKING LIFT USING MCU
  10. AUTOMATIC RAILWAY CROSSING GATE CONTROLLER
  11. AUTO REJECTION + CONVEYER BELT SYSTEM
  12. AUTO JACK MACHINE
  13. AUTO BRACK SYSTEM FOR AUTOMOBIL
  14. PADDLE CONTROLLED WASHING MECHINE
  15. HYDRO ELECTRICITY
  16. WIND ELECTRICITY
  17. ELECTRICITY FROM SPEED BRAKER
  18. SOLAR SUN SEEKER
  19. ROBOTIC CRANE WITH UP/DOWN & CIRCULAR MOTION
  20. AUTO GRASS CUTTER
  21. HYDRAULIC ROBOTIC ARM
  22. WALKING ROBOT
  23. AUTO DRAIN VALVE WITH AIR DRIER FOR COMPRESSOR
  24. AUTO HAMMER STRIKER
  25. AUTO SIDE STAND INDICATOR AND CENTER STAND
  26. AUTOMATIC LUBRICATING MACHINE
  27. AUTOMATIC DIMENSIONING MACHINE
  28. AUTOMATIC DISC PARKING SYSTEM
  29. AUTOMATIC DRILLING AND TAPPING MACHINE
  30. AUTOMATIC GEAR CHANGER
  31. AUTOMATIC GEAR DISPLAY
  32. AUTOMATIC MOTOR COIL WINDING SYSTEM USING MICROCONROLLER
  33. AUTOMATIC POOR QUALITY REJECTER
  34. AUTOMATIC QUALITY CHECKING SYSTEM
  35. AUTOMATIC SEALING MACHINE
  36. BATTERY OPERATED PORTABLE PUMP
  37. CIRCULAR CUTTING MACHINE
  38. CNC BAR FEEDING MACHINE
  39. COIR MAKING MACHINE
  40. CONVEYER FOR QUALITY CONTROL
  41. ELECTRICAL COMPARATOR WITH DIGITAL DISPLAY
  42. ELECTRICAL SPOT WELDING MACHINE
  43. ELECTRIFIED TWO AXIS SLIDING TABLE
  44. ELECTROMAGNETIC BREAKING SYSTEM
  45. ELECTRONIC POWER STEERING
  46. ELECTRONIC WISE
  47. EMERGENCY BREAKING SYSTEM
  48. ENERGY EFFICIENT CONVEYOR WITH AUTO DIMENSIONING MECHANISM
  49. FABRICATION OF HYDRAULIC OR PNEUMATIC VICE
  50. FABRICATION OF PNEUMATIC PICK AND PLACE ROBO
  51. FABRICATION OF SOLID FUEL FABRICATION MACHINE
  52. FABRICATION OF WINDMILL POWER GENERATOR
  53. FOOT STEP PRESSURE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATOR
  54. FRICTIONLESS ELECTROMAGNETIC BREAKING SYSTEM
  55. GLASS CUTTING MACHINE
  56. HIGH SPEED MATERIAL TRANSFERRING ROBO
  57. HYDRAULIC NOODLES MACHINE
  58. JIGS AND FIXTURE
  59. MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM
  60. MICRO HOLE DRILLING MACHINE
  61. MINI MILLING MACHINE
  62. MOTORISED JACK
  63. MULTI PURPOSE MAGNETIC LOCKER SYSTEM
  64. MULTIPURPOSE TOOL CHANGER
  65. PNEUMATIC HAG SAW CUTTER
  66. OVER LOAD INDICATOR FOR MACHINES
  67. PEDDLING WASHING MACHINE
  68. PEDDLING PUMP
  69. PNEUMATIC HAND GRINDER
  70. PNEUMATIC PUNCH
  71. PNEUMATIC COMPARATOR
  72. AUTOMATIC PNEUMATIC DOOR OPENER
  73. POWER GENERATION USING FOOTSTEPS
  74. POWER GENERATION USING SPEED BREAKER
  75. RAIN ACTIVATED WIPER
  76. REMOTE CONTROLLED SCREW JACK
  77. REMOTE OPERATED WIRELESS CRANE CONTROL SYSTEM
  78. SAFETY LOCKING SYSTEM
  79. SALT WATER INTO PURE WATER
  80. SHEET METAL BEND REMOVING MACHINE
  81. SOFT HAND GEAR SYSTEM
  82. SOLAR ENERGY POWER SPRAYER
  83. SOLAR PANEL TRACKING SYSTEM MECHANISM
  84. THERMOCOAL CUTTING MACHINE USING CNC
  85. TIDAL POWER PLANT
  86. UTILIZATION OF USED AIR IN CYLINDER OR PNEUMATIC AIR SAVER
  87. VERTICAL AXIS WINDMILL
  88. FABRICATION HYDRAULIC PRESS
  89. FABRICATION HYDRAULIC BENDING
  90. FABRICATION HYDRAULIC FORKLIFT
  91. FABRICATION OF SPY ROBO
  92. FABRICATION OF VOICE OPERATED WHEEL CHAIR
  93. FABRICATION OF PEDALING COMPRESSOR
  94. FABRICATION OF AUTO FEED DRILLING MACHINE
  95. FOOD PROCESS CONTROL STATION
  96. AUTOMATIC RATION SYSTEM
  97. LIBRARY AUTOMATION SYSTEM
  98. LOAD TESTS AND MANY OTHER TESTS ON COMPOSITE MATERIAL (FOR AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRIES)
  99. DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSEL TO CODE SPECIFICATION

100. HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR (HRSG)

101. TWO AXIS SLIDING TABLE

102. SINGLE AXIS SLIDING TABLE

103. SLIDING TABLE FOR GRINDING MACHINE

104. AUTOMATIC BLANKING MACHINE

105. AUTOMATIC PVC PIPE CUTTING MACHINE

106. AUTOMATIC INJECTION MOLDING

107. FABRICATION OF DRILLING M/C WITH TAPPING ATTACHMENT

108. AGITATOR

109. FABRICATION OF WIND MILL

110. SOLAR WATER HEATER

111. FABRICATING OF MICRO HOLES DRILLER

112. PNEUMATIC DOOR OPENER

113. PNEUMATIC HAND DRILLING

114. CHICKEN SKIN PEELER

115. FABRICATION OF AUTOMATIC CONE WINDING

116. FABRICATION OF PULVERIZE

117. FABRICATION OF AUTOMATIC ENVELOPE FOLDING MACHINE

118. AUTOMATIC HAMMER STRIKER

119. FABRICATION OF COIL WINDING MACHINE

120. SHEET METAL BEND REMOVING MACHINE

121. FABRICATION OF YARN PIGMENT TESTER

122. FABRICATION OF KEY WAY MILLING MACHINE

123. FABRICATION OF TILT ABLE EXTENSION LADDER

124. FABRICATION OF DUPLICATE KEY MAKING MACHINE

125. AUTOMATED DIMENSIONING MACHINE

126. AUTOMATIC DRILLING MACHINE

127. PNEUMATIC PUNCHING MACHINE

128. AUTOMATIC COIL WINDING MACHINE

129. GAS MONITORING SYSTEM

130. CNC BAR FEEDING MACHINE

131. FABRICATION OF SPRING ROLLING MACHINE

132. FABRICATION OF SHEET METAL CUTTING

133. FABRICATION OF DRILLING M/C WITH KEY WAY ATTACHMENT

134. INDEXING TABLE FOR DRILLING MACHINE

135. PNEUMATIC CYLINDER

136. HYDRAULIC CYLINDER

137. DESIGN OF EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT

138. AUTOMATIC FILING SYSTEM

139. SINGLE CYLINDER DOUBLE ACTING PUMP

140. SOLAR BASED OVEN

141. CNC THERMO COAL CUTTING MACHINE

142. PAINT MIXING MACHINE

143. AUTOMATIC CONE RELEASER

144. AUTOMATIC SEALING MACHINE

145. PNEUMATIC HAND GRINDER

146. BAND SAW CUTTING MACHINE

147. MANUAL INJECTION MOLDING

148. FABRICATION OF DRILLING MACHINE WITH VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE IN LEVEL METHOD

149. FABRICATION OF DRILLING MACHINE WITH VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE IN SCREW METHOD

150. FABRICATION OF OVEN

151. JIGS AND FIXTURES

152. FABRICATION OF HYDRAULIC PRESS

153. MINI MILLING MACHINE

154. METAL DETECTOR

155. FABRICATION OF SEMI-AUTOMATIC RAMMING M/C

156. DESIGN & FABRICATION OF SOFT START COUPLINGS

157. MOTORIZED POWER JACK

158. AUTOMATIC CRANE SYSTEM

159. AUTO GEARING SYSTEM

160. REMOTE MATERIAL HANDLER

161. HYDRAULIC NOODLES MACHINE

162. AUTOMATIC BAR FEEDING MECHANISM

163. HYDRAULIC SCISSOR JACK

164. HYDRAULIC SCREW JACK

165. AUTOMATED MATERIAL TRANSFERRING SYSTEM

166. CONVEYER FOR INDUSTRIES

167. AUTOMATIC FILLING SYSTEM

168. AUTOMATIC CAR SHUTTER

169. AUTOMATIC STEERING CONTROLLED LEAD LAMPS

170. REMOTE CONTROLLED WHEEL CHAIR

171. ABC CONTROLLING THROUGH SWITCH

172. SLAVE ROBOTS

173. ARTIFICIAL ARM

174. INSPECTION SYSTEM USING PC

175. MACHINING STATUS INFORMER

176. FABRICATION FOR SLOTTING MACHINE

177. FABRICATION OF PIPE BENDING MACHINE

178. GEAR INDICATOR FOR TWO WHEELERS

179. AUTOMATIC VICE CONTROL FOR BAR FEEDING MACHINE

180. AUTOMATIC QUALITY TESTING SYSTEM

181. AUTOMATIC POOR QUALITY REJECTER

182. BOTTLE VENDING MACHINE

183. HYDRAULIC POWER PACK

184. MOTORIZED DOOR OPENER

185. PLANT AUTOMATION

186. SIMULTANEOUS OPERATIONS THROUGH FLOW PROCESS

187. OPERATION METHOD REWINDING AND ANALYZING

188. PROCESS RETRIEVALS AND ITS DRILLING OPERATION

189. AUTOMATED LEAD SCREW JAWS

190. AUTOMATIC BENCH MARKING SYSTEM

191. CONTACT LESS AUTOMATIC DOOR OPENER

192. OPERATION IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

193. THREADING MACHINE WITH PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER

194. HYDRO PNEUMATIC VICE

195. AUTO BRAKING SYSTEM

196. COIN VENDING MACHINE

197. AUTOMATED THREADING MACHINE

 

 

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Joystick control car drive mechanism for physically challenged people

September 25, 2012

 

We often see that, persons with disability needs to use mobility car.Mobility Car is a vehicle issued to a disabled person, to allow them to travel without burden of their disability. Mobility cars are obtained from a scheme called “Motability”. But this car too not come with some preconditions and these conditions are difficult to met for severely disabled person.Moreover, driving a car is always difficult for a person with having control distributed all over.

This project is for mechanical engineering students and would be extremely useful for people who are impair the physical abilities

Our objective:
We want to build a car which can be operated by using joystick. If we can build that, it would be great help for disabled persons.

Why we need this type of system?

Existing system in the market are modified to allow the physically disabled to drive but it still needs lots of improvements.


How to build one?

The Vehicle works in two modes:
1) Joystick:- A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling. We will take input from user through a joystick and then process it to produce servo commands via a Arduino Board.
2) Autonomous driving in constrained environment: Using input from Kinect sensor.Kinect is a motion sensing input device by Microsoft for the Xbox 360 video game console and Windows PCs to obtain depth image and process the frames in real-time.To perform depth based blob detection combining it with vision based blob tracking to perform a robust obstacle detection. The technique involves using a slice of depth image for detecting obstacles and then finding path taking in view the maximum steering angle, width of the vehicle, turning radius etc.

System Requirements:
Languages Used: python 2.5,autonomous module is built in c# and uses emgucv
Softwares: Aforge image processing libraries and Microsoft Kinect SDK 1.0
Hardware includes – Standard Laptop (Intel core i5-2410M @ 2.30 GHZ, 4GB RAM), Joystick, Kinect Sensor, Arduino Uno Microcontroller, Servo, UPS, Battery, servo motors, h-bridges and wireless transmitter and receiver(Fail safe) .
The vehicle also has a fail-safe mechanism that is used to control vehicle in emergency using a wireless remote.

Video

Produce Electricity From Solar Heat

October 4, 2011

01-solar thermal power conversion-beam radiation-direct normal irradiation-Solar-Power-in-Florida-turning solar heat into electricity

The principles of solar thermal power conversion have been known for more than a century; its commercial scale-up and exploitation, however, has only taken place since the mid 1980s. With these first large-scale 30-80 MW parabolic trough power stations, built in the California Mojave desert, the technology has impressively demonstrated its technological and economic promise. With few adverse environmental impacts and a massive resource, the sun, it offers an opportunity to the countries in the sun belt of the world comparable to that currently being offered by offshore wind farms to European and other nations with the windiest shorelines.

01-direct radiation-solar radiation-electromagnetic radiation-solar collectors-insolation

Solar thermal power can only use direct sunlight, called ‘beam radiation’ or Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI), i.e. that fraction of sunlight which is not deviated by clouds, fumes or dust in the atmosphere and that reaches the earth’s surface in parallel beams for concentration. Hence, it must be sited in regions with high direct solar radiation. Suitable sites should receive at least 2,000 kilowatt hours (kWh) of sunlight radiation per m2annually, whilst best site locations receive more than 2,800 kWh/m2/year.

01-solar panels-solar power energy-solar power system-diagram_solar_power-produce electricity from solar energy example

In many regions of the world, one square kilometer of land is enough to generate as much as 100-130 Giga watt hours (GWh) of solar electricity per year using solar thermal technology. This is equivalent to the annual production of a 50 MW conventional coal- or gas-fired mid-load power plants. Over the total life cycle of a solar thermal power system, its output would be equivalent to the energy contained in more than    5 million barrels of oil2).

TURNING SOLAR HEAT INTO ELECTRICITY

01-illustration_trough_collector_from_sunlight-solar collector assembly-parabolic trough solar collector

Producing electricity from the energy in the sun’s rays is a straightforward process: direct solar radiation can be concentrated and collected by a range of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies to provide medium- to high temperature heat.

01-concentrating solar power plants-CSP Technologies-Concentrating solar power technologies-direct solar radiation process-parabolic solar trough collectors

This heat is then used to operate a conventional power cycle, for example through a steam turbine or a Stirling engine. Solar heat collected during the day can also be stored in liquid or solid media such as molten salts, ceramics, concrete or, in the future, phase-changing salt mixtures. At night, it can be extracted from the storage medium thereby continuing turbine operation.

Personal Flying Jetpack Machine

October 4, 2011

silver-jetpack-martin aviation company-himmelsturner       

This Jetpack consists of a built-in gasoline engine driving twin ducted fans which produce sufficient thrust to lift the aircraft and a pilot in vertical takeoff and landing, enabling sustained flight.

01-martin-aircraft-jetpack-commercial jetpack manufacturers-personal flying  machine jetpack- jetpack machines

Jetpack Development:


Since the beginning of time man has dreamed of personal flight – the ability to fly as free as birds and escape gravity’s pull.

From the 1920s this dream has been refined in film, books and television, with the jetpack portrayed as the ultimate tool for the freedom of flight.

In the 1950s the first serious attempts at building a jetpack produced the Bell Rocket Belt. But the Bell Rocket Belt has some limitations. It is powered by an expensive and hazardous fuel, needs a light weight pilot, is incredibly hard to fly, and, after 50 years of development can only fly for 30 seconds. It is not the practical jetpack the world has been waiting for.

In 1981, as a New Zealand student, started his quest to a build a jetpack that overcame the limitations of the Rocket Belt. With enthusiasm and commitment Glenn has been able to capture the support of a large network of experts who shared his dream.

01-jetpack-30 minutes of flight time-gasoline engine-two ducted fans

The rest is history. On 29 July 2008, the world’s first practical jetpack, was revealed to the world and became an international media sensation.

Jetpack Technology:

01-carbon fibre composite jetpack-VTOL-vertical take off and landing aircraft- fan jet technology-martin-aircraft-jetpack-commercial jetpack manufacturers-personal flying  machine jetpack

The Jetpack is constructed from carbon fiber composite, has a dry weight of 250 lbs (excluding safety equipment) and measures 5 ft high x 5.5 ft wide x 5 ft long. It’s driven by a 2.0 L V4 2 stroke engine rated at 200 hp (150 kw), can reach 8000 ft (estimated) and each of the two 1.7 ft wide rotors is made from carbon / Kevlar composite.

There is always risk associated with flying so the Aircraft has been careful to equip the pack with redundant systems that will take over in the event that the main system goes down. If a crash-landing is required, a pilot-operated toggle will rapidly fire a small amount of propellant deploying a ballistic parachute (similar to a car airbag) which will allow the pilot and jetpack to descend together. It also has an impact-absorbing carriage, patented fan jet technology and 1000 hours engine TBO (Time Between Overhaul). Small vertical take-off and landing aircraft (VTOL) are not subject to the same limitations as other helicopters and fixed wing aircrafts but Aircraft have built it to comply with ultra light regulations and therefore suggest it as at least as safe to operate, and claim it is the safest of all jetpacks yet built.

01-jetpack-a personal aircraft

The Jetpack achieves with 30 minutes of flight time and is fueled by regular premium gasoline.

Safety Development:

Roll cage:

01-steel roll cage

roll cage is a specially constructed frame built in (or sometimes around) the cab of a vehicle to protect its occupants from being injured in an accident, particularly in the event of a roll-over. A roll bar is a single bar behind the driver that provides moderate roll-over protection. Due to the lack of a protective top, some modern convertibles utilize a strong windscreen frame acting as a roll bar. Also, a roll hoop may be placed behind both headrests, which is essentially a roll bar spanning the width of a passenger’s shoulders.

Factor Of Safety:

The Jetpack has a number of mechanical things moving fast….a drive train, Fan jets. All these are designed with far higher “factors of safety” (FOS) than is normal for an aircraft. This was done because of the newness of the design and to cover for unforeseen factors. For instance the Fan blades have a FOS of 5, at the hub and over 10 at the blade.

Parachute:

01-parachute-in aircrafts-jetpacks

Production versions of the Jetpack are equipped with a Ballistic Parachute system from Ballistic Recovery Systems. This enables the pilot to be saved from a catastrophic failure down to a reasonably low altitude. Ballistic parachutes can open at very low altitudes, particularly if the aircraft has some forward speed. For this reason the “flight profiles” will be calculated to have the lowest risk possible.

01-jetpack-parachute compartment-flying controls-twin turbo jets

Application:

  • Emergency response,
  • Defense and recreation, with numerous applications in each sector.

Spiral Tube Ink Refilling

October 4, 2011

ballpoint pen is a writing instrument with an internal ink reservoir and a sphere for a point. The internal chamber is filled with a viscous ink that is dispensed at its tip during use by the rolling action of a small sphere.


 01-Spiral Ink refill-Ink Refill-Ball Point pen refills-double ink capacity ball point pens-double helix pen-spiral pen tubes

There are two basic types of ball point pens:

  • Disposable
  • Refillable.

Disposable pens are chiefly made of plastic throughout and discarded when the ink is consumed; Refillable pens are metal and some plastic and tend to be much higher in price. The refill replaces the entire internal ink reservoir and ball point unit rather than actually refilling it with ink, as it takes special high-speed centrifugation to properly fill a ball point reservoir with the viscous ink. The simplest types of ball point pens have a cap to cover the tip when the pen is not in use, while others have a mechanism for retracting the tip. This mechanism is usually controlled by a button at the top and powered by a spring within the pen body, but other possibilities include a pair of buttons, a screw, or a slide.

02-Spiral Ink refill-Ink Refill-Ball Point pen refills-double ink capacity ball point pens-double helix pen-spiral pen tubes

Think about it, instead of having a straight tube ink refill, how about fashioning it as a spiral? Agreed it occupies a bit more space so the pen can’t be sleek and slim, but it holds double the amount of ink! There’s a reason why our DNA is structured in a double helix. I guess it will work like a charm for those disposable types, making them last longer.

Artificial Leaf Solar Power

October 3, 2011

Photosynthesis:

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protists use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which cellular respiration converts into ATP, the “fuel” used by all living things. The conversion of unusable sunlight energy into usable chemical energy, is associated with the actions of the green pigment chlorophyll.

They release molecular oxygen and remove CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) from the air.

ATP: Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP)  Here the energy is stored in living systems; it consists of a Nucleotide (with Ribose sugar) with Three Phosphate groups.

Why is photosynthesis important:

01-photosynthesis-green pigment chlorophyll-ATP-Adenosine Tri-Phosphate

Nearly all living things depend on the energy produced from photosynthesis for their nourishment. Animals need the plants for food as well as oxygen. Only green plants are able to change light energy into chemical energy stored in food, thus they are vital to life on Earth.

Solar cells:

01-solar cells-photovoltaic cells-silicon semiconductor material-silicon cells-solar wall paper

Conventional solar cells are also called as Photo Voltaic Cells. These cells are made out of semiconducting material, usually silicon. When light hits the cells, they absorb energy though photons. This absorbed energy knocks out electrons in the silicon, allowing them to flow. By adding different impurities to the silicon such as phosphorus or boron, an electric field can be established. This electric field acts as a diode, because it only allows electrons to flow in one direction. Consequently, the end result is a current of electrons, better known to us as electricity.


Drawbacks of Solar cells:

They can only achieve efficiencies around 10% and they are expensive to manufacture. The first drawback, inefficiency, is almost unavoidable with silicon cells. This is because the incoming photons, or light, must have the right energy, called the band gap energy, to knock out an electron. If the photon has less energy than the band gap energy then it will pass through. If it has more energy than the band gap, then that extra energy will be wasted as heat.

Artificial Leaf:

Mixing of Photosynthesis + Conventional Solar Cells + Hydrogen Fuel Cell

26 Sept. 2011, Cambridge, MA - MIT professor Daniel Nocera has developed an artificial leaf chip that can split water molecules using light. Photo by Dominick Reuter

This Leaf device combines a commercially available solar cell (Silicon) with a pair of inexpensive catalysts made of Cobalt and Nickel that split water into Oxygen and Hydrogen. The hydrogen can be stored and used as an energy source. (For example to power a fuel cell).

The collection and storage of the sun’s energy as hydrogen fuel is a key step in overcoming one of the limitations of solar power — it generates energy when the sun is shining, but it needs to be stored somewhere to be useful at night and in cloudy weather. Batteries are one place to store the energy, but it is limited. Storing solar energy as hydrogen fuel could be an answer for producing the electricity continuously.

01-bubbles formation-production of electricity from hydrogen bubbles-artificial leaf hydrogen-electricity production


Using this approach, a solar panel roughly one square meter bathed in water could produce enough hydrogen to supply electricity for a house.


Remote controlled material handling equipment (RCMHE)

September 29, 2011

Prior to the introduction of the so called “Material handling equipment” humans had to perform physical labor to carry out heavy duty tasks. This could be made possible by employing a huge number of workers. However, when the goods came in bulk unloading and loading turned out to be a very time consuming affair. The use of Material handling equipment in logistics has played a significant role in making the loading and unloading activities easier and faster.

Ask yourself the question “Why are ‘Remote controlled’ material handling equipment used?” and almost instantly you arrive at the logical answer that the chief benefit would be allowing personal to control their machine from a safe distance.

Remote control can be achieved by two different modes:

1)     Radio frequency (RF) Signals

RF signals are further divided into two categories.

a)     Narrow-band system  b)  Spread spectrum system.

2)     Infrared light

Infrared method works by transmitting a beam of light

Infrared mode of radio control is preferred over RF signals because of the safety and precision that it offers. Since the infrared method works by transmitting a beam of light, once the beam is out of sight, the beam is obstructed and the controls turn off.  That is, the operator must always be in view of the RCMHE, which in turns aids safety as the full visibility of the operator over the machine is critical. Precise, in the sense that with the use of RF technology there is always a chance of interference with other signals and might lead to accidents, Infrared remote control makes this type of mistake impossible.

Applications:

1)      Transfer of components from one container to another especially fragile objects

2)      Transfer of  hazardous/explosive objects

3)      Operation in high temperature environment

 

Although it is advantages to use RCMHE, proper training for the staff handling the RCMHE is a prerequisite to ensure safe working.