## Posted tagged ‘aluminium’

### Latest Updates in Mechanical Engineering

September 25, 2011
• 1hp=how much rpm

We need Torque to find out.

Apply this formula:

T = HP x 5252
rpm

T = torque (in lb-ft)
HP = horsepower
5252 = constant
rpm = revolutions per minute

• which mechanism is used in automobile gearing system

Differential mechanism

• why different types of sound are produced in different bikes though they say run on SI engine

Engine specifications are different in different manufactures like as bore diameter(cc),ignition timing.Also the exhaust passage take more responsible for sound.

• why entropy decreases with the increase in temperature?

ds=dQ/T

Entropy is inversely proportional to the temperature so.as temp. increases,entropy decreases

• What type of metal is used in a propeller

Aluminium,stainless steel,magnesium bronze,NIBRAL(nickel,brass,aluminium)

• why involute curve used in gear

1) it’s smooth to drive the gear.
2) in gears contact is only point, this type is curve take the more load than normal one

• How Trains take turns, though there is no any differential

Purpose of the differential is to enable vehicles to take turn, by allowing both the wheel to rotate with different speed. This is required when wheels, like in car, are connected with same axle. Interestingly, wheel in trains are not connected with the axle, they are independent and hence can take turns without ant differential. This is same as how the bullock cart takes turns, without any differential.

• Why freezer in the fridge is placed in top level?

Because density of cold air is higher than warm air,hence itis placed at top.Cold air comes downward & cool the bottom part.

• what is more dangerous longitudinal stress or Hoop stress and why?

Hoop stress is more dangerous thanlongitudinal stress, because the dangerous area coming underthe hoop stress is circumferential,while in longitudinal,theaxial area will come under dangerous area will will be lessthan circumferential area.So the hoop stress is more dangerous than longitudinal stress

### SINTERING

August 23, 2011

The operation of heating the green compact at high temperature in a controlled atmosphere (Reducing atmosphere which protects oxidation of metal powders). The Sintering increases the bond between the particles and therefore strengthens a powder metal compact. Sintering temperature and time of sintering depends on the type of powders and the strength required in a final product. The Sintering temperatures usually 0.6 to 0.8 times the melting point of powders.

Type of powder                                   Sintering Temperature                 Time

Aluminium & Alloys                                   370 – 520 C                                  24 hrs

Copper, Brass, Bronze                                700 – 900 C                                  30 Mins

Iron                                                           1025 – 1200 C                              30 Mins

Stainless Steel                                           1180 C                                       20 – 40 Mins

Tungsten Carbide                                      1480 C                                      20 – 40 Mins

Spark Sintering:

The process of simultaneous pressing & Sintering of metal powders by high energy electric spark. This spark is discharged from capacitor bank & removes the surface contaminants from powder particles. This cause the particles to form a solid cohesive mass. Immediately after spark, the current is continued for about 10 Seconds, with high temperature which further strengthens the bond used for sintering Aluminium, Copper, Iron and Stainless Steel.

### SINTERING

August 23, 2011

The operation of heating the green compact at high temperature in a controlled atmosphere (Reducing atmosphere which protects oxidation of metal powders). The Sintering increases the bond between the particles and therefore strengthens a powder metal compact. Sintering temperature and time of sintering depends on the type of powders and the strength required in a final product. The Sintering temperatures usually 0.6 to 0.8 times the melting point of powders.

Type of powder                                   Sintering Temperature                 Time

Aluminium & Alloys                                   370 – 520 C                                  24 hrs

Copper, Brass, Bronze                                700 – 900 C                                  30 Mins

Iron                                                           1025 – 1200 C                              30 Mins

Stainless Steel                                           1180 C                                       20 – 40 Mins

Tungsten Carbide                                      1480 C                                      20 – 40 Mins

Spark Sintering:

The process of simultaneous pressing & Sintering of metal powders by high energy electric spark. This spark is discharged from capacitor bank & removes the surface contaminants from powder particles. This cause the particles to form a solid cohesive mass. Immediately after spark, the current is continued for about 10 Seconds, with high temperature which further strengthens the bond used for sintering Aluminium, Copper, Iron and Stainless Steel.

### MECHANICAL TESTING

August 23, 2011

Various tests:

• Tensile Test

A tensile test, also known as a tension test, tests a material’s strength. It’s a mechanical test where a pulling force is applied to a material from both sides until the sample changes its shape or breaks. It’s is a common and important test that provides a variety of information about the material being tested, including the elongation, yield point, tensile strength, and ultimate strength of the material. Tensile tests are commonly performed on substances such as metals, plastics, wood, and ceramics.

Tensile testing systems use a number of different units of measurement. The International System of Units, or SI, recommends the use of either Pascals (Pa) or Newtons per square meter (N/m²) for describing tensile strength. In the United States, many engineers measure tensile strength in kilo-pound per square inch (KSI).

• Tensile test with electronic extensometer

This instrument is to be used on Tensile or Universal testing machines to find out Proof stress & Young’s modulus values. In case of many brittle materials such as high carbon steels, alloy steels, light aluminium & magnesium alloys, it is difficult to get yield values. For such materials stress corresponding to a certain allowable amount of plastic deformation is termed as proof stress say 0.1% or 0.2% proof stress. The measuring range is up to 5mm & resolution is 0.001mm.

• Tensile testing at elevated temperature.

High temperature tensile testing is a procedure to test the properties of a material at above room temperature. It will determine the following parameters:

• Tensile strength (breaking strength)
• Yield strength
• Elongation
• Reduction of area

Specialist testing, measurement and control equipment is required to perform this test.
The results of such a test will provide a good indication of the static load bearing capacity of the material and therefore establishes the suitability of a material for its intended purpose.

• Tensile test on Tor steel Bars

TOR steel is one of the best grade of steel used in concrete reinforced. It’s a kind of high adherence steel. Other types of steel are used for less resistance concrete. Thermo mechanically Treated (TMT) bars are a type of corrosion resistant steel reinforcing bar used in concrete construction.

• Bend test on plates

A bend test is used to determine whether a specific piece of metal in question will break or fracture under pressure. This is important in the construction of any project using metal, otherwise the building or the item being made could collapse from the immense pressure exerted on it. Every piece of metal made cannot be tested, therefore certain pieces are tested and if they pass, the other pieces are made using the same process. The results of a bend test are reported differently depending on the type of material tested. There is no standard method for reporting the durability that applies to all materials, rather each group has its own set by which it is judged and compared to other metals in that group.

The bend test is essentially measuring a metal’s ductility. Ductility defines how easily a metal can bend without breaking. The higher the ductility of a metal, the more it can bend without breaking or becoming deformed from its original shape. This is important because certain metals must handle pressure without snapping yet still be ductile enough to bend slightly and not lose their support or shape. Copper and steel are two metals that have a high ductility and do well under pressure.

• Bend test on pipes

Bending tests are carried out to ensure that a metal has sufficient ductility to stand bending without fracturing. A standard specimen is bent through a specified arc and in the case of strip, the direction of grain flow is noted and whether the bend is with or across the grain.

• Bend Test on Tor steel

The purpose is to make certain the weld and the base metal are properly fused, and that the weld metal and the heat affected zone (HAZ) have appropriate mechanical properties

• Re-Bend test on Tor steel

The purpose of re-bend test is to measure the effect of strain ageing on steel. Strain ageing has embrittlement effect which takes place after cold deformation by diffusion of nitrogen in steel. Hence, there is limitation stated in some design codes to restrict the nitrogen content of steel to 0.012%.

• Nick Break Test

The NICK-BREAK TEST is useful for determining the internal quality of the weld metal. This test reveals various internal defects (if present), such as slag inclusions,  gas  pockets,  lack of  fusion,  and  oxidized  or burned metal. To accomplish the nick-break test for checking a butt weld, you must first flame-cut the test specimens from a sample weld.