Posted tagged ‘change’

POISSON'S RATIO

August 23, 2011

01-PoissonRatio-isotropic linearly material-youngs modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus, auxetic materials

When an element is stretched in one direction, it tends to get thinner in the other two directions. Hence, the change in longitudinal and lateral strains are opposite in nature (generally). Poisson’s ratio ν, named after Simeon Poisson, is a measure of this tendency. It is defined as the ratio of the contraction strain normal to the applied load divided by the extension strain in the direction of the applied load. Since most common materials become thinner in cross section when stretched, Poisson’s ratio for them is positive.


For a perfectly incompressible material, the Poisson’s ratio would be exactly 0.5. Most practical engineering materials have ν between 0.0 and 0.5. Cork is close to 0.0, most steels are around 0.3, and rubber is almost 0.5. A Poisson’s ratio greater than 0.5 cannot be maintained for large amounts of strain because at a certain strain the material would reach zero volume, and any further strain would give the material negative volume.


01-poissons ratio-calculate simple stress and strains-engineering mechanics

Some materials, mostly polymer foams, have a negative Poisson’s ratio; if these auxetic materials are stretched in one direction, they become thicker in perpendicular directions.Foams with negative Poisson’s ratios were produced from conventional low density open-cell polymer foams by causing the ribs of each cell to permanently protrude inward, resulting in a re-entrant structure.

An example of the practical application of a particular value of Poisson’s ratio is the cork of a wine bottle. The cork must be easily inserted and removed, yet it also must withstand the pressure from within the bottle. Rubber, with a Poisson’s ratio of 0.5, could not be used for this purpose because it would expand when compressed into the neck of the bottle and would jam. Cork, by contrast, with a Poisson’s ratio of nearly zero, is ideal in this application.

01-poissons ratio-strain changes

It is anticipated that re-entrant foams may be used in such applications as sponges, robust shock absorbing material, air filters and fasteners. Negative Poisson’s ratio effects can result from non-affine deformation, from certain chiral microstructures, on an atomic scale, or from structural hierarchy. Negative Poisson’s ratio materials can exhibit slow decay of stress according to Saint-Venant’s principle. Later writers have called such materials anti-rubber, auxetic (auxetics), or dilatational. These materials are an example of extreme materials.

POISSON’S RATIO

August 23, 2011

01-PoissonRatio-isotropic linearly material-youngs modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus, auxetic materials

When an element is stretched in one direction, it tends to get thinner in the other two directions. Hence, the change in longitudinal and lateral strains are opposite in nature (generally). Poisson’s ratio ν, named after Simeon Poisson, is a measure of this tendency. It is defined as the ratio of the contraction strain normal to the applied load divided by the extension strain in the direction of the applied load. Since most common materials become thinner in cross section when stretched, Poisson’s ratio for them is positive.


For a perfectly incompressible material, the Poisson’s ratio would be exactly 0.5. Most practical engineering materials have ν between 0.0 and 0.5. Cork is close to 0.0, most steels are around 0.3, and rubber is almost 0.5. A Poisson’s ratio greater than 0.5 cannot be maintained for large amounts of strain because at a certain strain the material would reach zero volume, and any further strain would give the material negative volume.


01-poissons ratio-calculate simple stress and strains-engineering mechanics

Some materials, mostly polymer foams, have a negative Poisson’s ratio; if these auxetic materials are stretched in one direction, they become thicker in perpendicular directions.Foams with negative Poisson’s ratios were produced from conventional low density open-cell polymer foams by causing the ribs of each cell to permanently protrude inward, resulting in a re-entrant structure.

An example of the practical application of a particular value of Poisson’s ratio is the cork of a wine bottle. The cork must be easily inserted and removed, yet it also must withstand the pressure from within the bottle. Rubber, with a Poisson’s ratio of 0.5, could not be used for this purpose because it would expand when compressed into the neck of the bottle and would jam. Cork, by contrast, with a Poisson’s ratio of nearly zero, is ideal in this application.

01-poissons ratio-strain changes

It is anticipated that re-entrant foams may be used in such applications as sponges, robust shock absorbing material, air filters and fasteners. Negative Poisson’s ratio effects can result from non-affine deformation, from certain chiral microstructures, on an atomic scale, or from structural hierarchy. Negative Poisson’s ratio materials can exhibit slow decay of stress according to Saint-Venant’s principle. Later writers have called such materials anti-rubber, auxetic (auxetics), or dilatational. These materials are an example of extreme materials.

MEASUREMENT

August 23, 2011

Calibration:

01-the weighing scale-weighing machines-balance-calibration example

If a known input is given to the measurement system the output deviates from the given input, the corrections are made in the instrument and then the output is measured. This process is called “Calibration”.

Sensitivity:

Sensitivity is the ratio of change in the output signal to the change in the input signal.

Readability:

01-electroniccaliper-VERNIER CALIPER-DIGITAL VERNIER CALIPER-DIRECT MEASUREMENTS-ACCURATE-PRECISION MEASUREMENTS-CALIBRATED INSTRUMENTS-readability

Refers to the ease with which the readings of a measuring instrument can be read.

True size:

Theoretical size of a dimension which is free from errors.

Actual size:

Size obtained through measurement with permissible error.


01-true size-actual size-feet size-example-shoe-footwear

Hysteresis:

All the energy put into the stressed component when loaded is not recovered upon unloading. so the output of measurement partially depends on input called Hysteresis.

01-tachometer-digital tachometer-hysteresis due to pressure of force

Range:

The physical variables that are measured between two values. One is the higher calibration value Hc and the other is Lower value Lc.

01-range - read values from 0 to 11000 rpm - bezel meter - tachometer

Span:

The algebraic difference between higher calibration values to lower calibration values.

Resolution:

The minimum value of the input signal is required to cause an appreciable change in the output known as resolution.

Dead Zone:

It is the largest change in the physical variable to which the measuring instrument does not respond.

Threshold:

The minimum value of input signal that is required to make a change or start from zero.

01-threshold-minimum input given to start the engine-bike kick start action

Backlash:

The maximum distance through which one part of the instrument is moved without disturbing the other part.

01-backlash - continuous rotation possible without applying brake-SINGLE 3-PHASE AC ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC MOTOR

Response Time:

The time at which the instrument begins its response for a change in the measured quantity.

Repeatability:

The ability of the measuring instrument to repeat the same results during the act measurements for the same quantity is known as repeatability.

Bias:

It is a characteristic of a measure or measuring instruments to give indications of the value of a measured quantity for which the average value differs from true value.

Magnification:

It means the magnitude of output signal of measuring instrument many times increases to make it more readable.

01-magnification-objective lens-magnify-loupe-ring

Drift:

If an instrument does not reproduce the same reading at different times of measurement for the same input signal, it is said to be measurement drift.

Reproducibility:

It is the consistency of pattern of variation in measurement. When individual measurements are carried out the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same quantity.

Uncertainty:

The range about the measured value within the true value of the measured quantity is likely to lie at the stated level of confidence.

Traceability:

It is nothing establishing a calibration by step by step comparison with better standards.

01-traceability-calibration step by step-vacuum calibration

Parallax:

An apparent change in the position of the index relative is to the scale marks.

 

 

01-parallax-error-measurement of length-eye view

MEASUREMENT

August 23, 2011

Calibration:

01-the weighing scale-weighing machines-balance-calibration example

If a known input is given to the measurement system the output deviates from the given input, the corrections are made in the instrument and then the output is measured. This process is called “Calibration”.

Sensitivity:

Sensitivity is the ratio of change in the output signal to the change in the input signal.

Readability:

01-electroniccaliper-VERNIER CALIPER-DIGITAL VERNIER CALIPER-DIRECT MEASUREMENTS-ACCURATE-PRECISION MEASUREMENTS-CALIBRATED INSTRUMENTS-readability

Refers to the ease with which the readings of a measuring instrument can be read.

True size:

Theoretical size of a dimension which is free from errors.

Actual size:

Size obtained through measurement with permissible error.


01-true size-actual size-feet size-example-shoe-footwear

Hysteresis:

All the energy put into the stressed component when loaded is not recovered upon unloading. so the output of measurement partially depends on input called Hysteresis.

01-tachometer-digital tachometer-hysteresis due to pressure of force

Range:

The physical variables that are measured between two values. One is the higher calibration value Hc and the other is Lower value Lc.

01-range - read values from 0 to 11000 rpm - bezel meter - tachometer

Span:

The algebraic difference between higher calibration values to lower calibration values.

Resolution:

The minimum value of the input signal is required to cause an appreciable change in the output known as resolution.

Dead Zone:

It is the largest change in the physical variable to which the measuring instrument does not respond.

Threshold:

The minimum value of input signal that is required to make a change or start from zero.

01-threshold-minimum input given to start the engine-bike kick start action

Backlash:

The maximum distance through which one part of the instrument is moved without disturbing the other part.

01-backlash - continuous rotation possible without applying brake-SINGLE 3-PHASE AC ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC MOTOR

Response Time:

The time at which the instrument begins its response for a change in the measured quantity.

Repeatability:

The ability of the measuring instrument to repeat the same results during the act measurements for the same quantity is known as repeatability.

Bias:

It is a characteristic of a measure or measuring instruments to give indications of the value of a measured quantity for which the average value differs from true value.

Magnification:

It means the magnitude of output signal of measuring instrument many times increases to make it more readable.

01-magnification-objective lens-magnify-loupe-ring

Drift:

If an instrument does not reproduce the same reading at different times of measurement for the same input signal, it is said to be measurement drift.

Reproducibility:

It is the consistency of pattern of variation in measurement. When individual measurements are carried out the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same quantity.

Uncertainty:

The range about the measured value within the true value of the measured quantity is likely to lie at the stated level of confidence.

Traceability:

It is nothing establishing a calibration by step by step comparison with better standards.

01-traceability-calibration step by step-vacuum calibration

Parallax:

An apparent change in the position of the index relative is to the scale marks.

 

 

01-parallax-error-measurement of length-eye view