Posted tagged ‘cooling’

AUTOMOBILE ENGINES

September 10, 2011

The working of an automobile engine follows the same principle as an internal combustion engine. Air, from outside, enters the engine through the air cleaner and reaches the throttle plate.
The pedal in your car is the control for the amount of air that you would want to be taken in, and you control it by pressing on this gas pedal.
The air is then distributed through the intake manifold of the cylinders.

At some point fuel is injected into the air stream, and the mixture vaporizes and is drawn into the cylinders as they start their intake stroke.

This way, when the cylinder has reached its bottom, it has drawn in sufficient mixture. As it moves up, compressing the mixture, the spark plug ignites the mixture, and as the powerful gas formed expands, it pushes the cylinder to the bottom with the cylinder once again drawing in the mixture.

In designing automobile engines, you need to be a specialist in automobile engineering.
The consideration that is taken while designing such an engine is whether it should be a carburetor or a diesel one. carburetor engines are most commonly found in passenger cars and low capacity trucks, while trucks with a capacity over two tons are fitted with diesel engines, including dump trucks, trailer tractors and bus.

Increasingly the medium and low-capacity vehicles are being fitted with diesel engines, since the fuel consumption of these engines are 30% to 50% lower than the carburetor engines.
Diesel engines not only cost more, but maintenance is much more expensive than the other type of engine. Diesels require more metal parts per kilowatt.
The critical parts of diesel engines are made of alloy steel, and the fuel injection system is much more expensive than carburetor engines.

However, the cost of manufacturing carburetor engines has increased with the use of higher mechanical grade components, considering the thermal loads of the material used. At the same time the use of high alloys and increase in production costs have contributed to the higher price of such engines.

There is a sharp rise in using aluminum alloys in design of carburetor engines in passenger cars, and with the use of high octane petrol, the cost of operation of these cars have come down extensively. Using alloy steel in constructing the engine body and other parts of the engine, makes the car lighter and hence fuel consumption goes down substantially.

The main parts that are made of high steel alloy are the main casting of the engine, the cylinder head, water and oil pumps, oil filter housing, end covers of the generator and starter, and the intake pipes. It has been observed that by using high steel alloys, the weight of the car is reduced by 35%.

The power per liter, per unit of piston area, and the brake effective pressure are 6% to 8% lower in air-cooled engines, compared to engines having liquid cooling mechanism. This is due to the fact that in engines with liquid cooling there are great losses in cylinder charging caused by the high temperature in pipes, ducts in the head, cylinder walls and head, etc.

The size of air cooled engines are much bigger than the engines with liquid cooling having the same capacity, and this is because the cylinder axes difference is larger in air-cooled engines. Taking account of the radiator dimensions, if both engines are compared, the air-cooled engine will vary slightly with its height a little longer than or approximately the same length as the water-cooled engine. As far as the width and the height is concerned both engines are about the same.

The auxiliary units of the feed and ignition, and generator and starter systems are a bit difficult to fit on the body of the air-cooled engines, because of the presence of hoods and having a danger of over-heating.

Mechanical Engineering Seminar Topics List 2

September 10, 2011
Air Powered Cars
Ablative Materials
Aerospace Propulsion
Combustion Research
Advanced Cooling Systems
Active roll-over protection system in Automobiles
Air Cushion Vehicles
Advances in composite materials
Aircraft Egress
Advanced Rocket Motors
V GENERATION FIGHTER PLANES
Air suspension system
Aerospace Flywheel Development
Adaptive contol
Air Casters
Advanced Battery and Fuel Cell Development for EV
Adaptive Active Phased Array Radars
Collision warning system
Activated Flyash As A Binder In Pavement
Aerodonetics
DISKBRAKES
MACHINE INTERFACE
Airbags & ABS
Air Monitoring
Advanced Quadruped Robot – BigDog
Actuator systems based on Piezoelectric ceramics
Acid sulphate soils/estuarine wetlands rehabilitation
Aircraft Propeller
Air- Augmented Rocket
Advances In Capillary Fluid Modelling
Aerospikes
Air Pollution Control
Advanced Propulsion Methods
Active Front Lighting System
Aircraft design
Advanced Off-set printing
Advanced Plastics
AeroCapture
Pulse Detonation Engine
Floating Solar Power Station
Advances In Capillary Fluid Modelling
Continuously Variable Transmission
Hybrid Motorcycles
Machine Vision
Space Elevator
Crew Exploration Vehicles
Vacuum Braking System
ACC-Plus(Adaptive Cruise Control+ System
Micro/Meso-scale Manufacturing
Magneto Abrasive Flow Machining
Turbines in silicon
Self-Healing Polymer Technology
Variable Length Intake Manifold (VLIM)
Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD)
Launching Space Vehicles from Moon
Advanced Propulsion Methods
Pseudoelasticity and Shape Memory in Metal Nanowires
Quantum Chromo Dynamics
MEMS In Industrial Automation
Stirling engine
Fluid Energy Milling
Snake Well Drill
Infrared Thermography
New Age Tyres
Shock Waves & Shock Diamonds
Camless engine with elctromechanical valve actuator
Advances In Capillary Fluid Modelling
Hybrid Motorcycles*
Machine Vision
Crew Exploration Vechicles
ACC-Plus(Adaptive Crusie Control+) System
Micro/Meso-scale Manufacturing
Turbines in silicon
Self-Healing Polymer Technology
Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD)
Launching Space Vechicles from Moon
Pseudoelasticity and Shape Memory in Metal Nanowires
Quantum Chromo Dynamics
MEMS In Industrial Automation
Fluid Energy Milling
Snake Well Drill
Infrared Thermography
Shock Waves & Shock Diamonds
Camless engine with elctromechanical valve actuator
Aircraft Egress
Molecular Engineering
Cordless Tools
Free Form Modelling Based on N-Sided Surfaces
Functional Nanocrystalline Ceramics
Frictionless Compressor Technology
Kalina cycle
Programmable keyless entry
Micromanipulating Micromachine
Infrared Curing And Convection Curing
Ball Piston machines
Autonomous Submarines
Automated Highways
Pint Sized Power Plants
Abrasive Blast Cleaning
Air Powered Cars
Magnetic Nanocoposites
Electrochemical Machining (ECM) & EBM~
Space Robotics
Rijke Tube
Electromagnetic Bomb
Cell Integration Into A Manufacturing System~
Plasma Arc welding
Trends in welding
Hydrogen Vehicle~
New Rolling Techniques
Valvetronic Engine Technology
FMS (Flexible Manufacturing Systems)
Latest in hitech petrol fuel injection –GDI (Gasoline direct Injection)
Underwater wind mill
Microfluidics
Aircraft Propeller~
Micromixers
Nono Fluidics
Electronic Road Pricing System~
Micro Heat Exchangers
Low inertia dics clutches
Electronbeam Machining~
nanobatteries
Micro hydraulics
Virtual Reality~
Touch trigger probes
Solid carbide end mills
Ocean Thermal Energy(12)
DARK ROOM machining
Green Manufacturing
Modeling and simulation
Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engine(13)
Logistics and supply chain management
Machine tools vibration, Noise & condition monitoring
Ergonomics
Safety Systems
Nuclear Power Potential as Major Energy Source
Energy Conversion and Management
Active Electrically Controlled Suspension
Special materials for high temperature applications
Camless engine with elctromechanical valve actuator
Perpetual Motion Machines
Recent Trends in Quality Management
New trends in Automobile Design
Advanced Cooling Systems
Fuels from Plastic Wastes
Composite materials
Geo-Thermal Energy
Engineering Applications of Nylon 66
Intelligent manufacturing
Variable Valve Timing In I.C. Engines
Agile manufacturing
Responsive manufacturing
Air Cushion Vehicles
Human Artificial organs
Advances in cutting tool technology
Electric Automobiles
High speed Railway coaches
Hydraulic railway recovery systems
Drive-By Wire Systems
Pendolina system for railway passenger comfort
Safety features of railway rolling stock
Hyperplane
Fuel Cell Airplane
Selective Catalytic Reduction
Skid Steer Loader And Multiterrain Loader
Control Of Point Of Operation Hazards
Air Powered Cars
CVT
Pneumatics Control Systems
Computer Aided Process Planning (Capp)
Green Engine
Sensotronic Brake Control
Space Robotics
F1 Track Design And Safety
Thermal Barrier Coatings
Biomechatronic Hand
Total Productive Maintenance
Design, Analysis, Fabrication And Testing Of A Composite Leaf Spring
HANS
Cryogenic Grinding
Hydro Drive
Explosive Welding
Frictionless Compressor Technology




Oscillating Conveyor System

September 8, 2011

Selection of vibratory conveyor:

01-vibrating conveyor-vibrating conveyor applications-vibrating conveyor belt-vibrating conveyor motor-oscillator-reciprocating conveyor-shaker conveyor-inertia conveyor

The oscillating motion of the trough is achieved via specially designed inclined arms and an eccentric shaft driven by a motor through V-belts. The eccentric shaft is mounted on anti friction bearings and has V-pulleys at both ends with weights on them to counteract the unbalancing force. The rotation of the eccentric shaft provides a forward and backward motion to a connecting arm attached to the trough through a rubberized pin. The trough motion is predominantly horizontal with some vertical component, which causes it to oscillate with a pattern conductive to conveying material. A retaining spring assembly at the back of the trough absorbs shock load. All components including drive motor are mounted on a rigidly constructed base frame.

Advantages:

· Hot and abrasive materials can be handled

· Cooling, drying and de-watering operation can be done during transport

· Scalping, screening or picking can be done

· Units can be covered and made dust tight

· Simple construction and low head room

· Can be made leak proof

Disadvantages:

· Relatively short length of conveying ( about 50m Maximum)

· Limited capacity, about 350 tons per hour for length of conveying of 30 m.

· Some degradation of material takes place.

Applications:

Vibratory conveyors find wide spread application in the transportation of dusty, hot, toxic, and chemically aggressive bulk material through a closed trough or pipe in chemical, metallurgical, mining industries and manufacturing of building materials.

Vibratory conveyors are also employed for transportation of steel chips in machine shop, hot knocked out sand, wastes and small castings in foundry shop. Vibratory feeders are also in use for delivery of small machine parts like screws, rivets etc.

Sticky materials like wet clay or sand are unsuitable for vibratory conveyors. In handling finely pulverized materials, like cement etc., the performance of such conveyors are reported to be poor.

Vibratory conveyors are hardly employed for handling common bulk loads, such as sand, gravel, coal etc as the same can be done more efficiency by belt conveyors.

FINISHING OPERATIONS

August 23, 2011

Sizing:

Repressing the sintered component in a die to meet required tolerances.

06-measurement-sizing-tolerance-measurement

02-Sizing-Sintering-Height gauge

Coining:

Repressing the sintered component in a die to increase the density and to give additional strength.

03-coldforge-coining

Infiltration:

Filling the pores of sintered product with molten metal to improve the physical properties.

Impregnation:

Filling of Oil, Grease or other Lubricants in a Sintered components such as Porous Heating

Machining:


Removing excess material by using cutting tool to imparts specific features such as Threads, Grooves, Undercuts etc, which are not practicable in powder metallurgy process.

04-thread cutting-powder metallurgy

Heat Treatment:

Process of Heating & Cooling at a desired rate to improve Grain Structure, Strength & Hardness.

05-heattreatment-metals-hardening

Plating:

Used for obtaining Resistance to Corrosion or better appearance.

05-electro plating-methods-examples

05-electro plating-application-examples

Powder metallurgy is used in the following industries:

  • Automotive (Brake pads, Gear parts, Connecting rods, Planetary carriers, Sintered Engine Bearings);

07-composite gears-automobile-parts

  • Aerospace (Light weight Aluminum base structural materials, High temperature Composite materials);

07-Aeroplane-boeing-powder-metallurgy-applications

07-composite-parts-Aerospace

  • Cutting tools (Hard metals, Diamond containing materials);

07-milling-cutters-tooling

  • Medicine (Dental implants, Surgical instruments);

07-medical-applications-powder metallurgy

  • Abrasives (Grinding and Polishing wheels and Discs);
  • Electrical, Electronic and Computer parts (Permanent magnets, Electrical contacts).

 

07-electronics-computer parts

FINISHING OPERATIONS

August 23, 2011

Sizing:

Repressing the sintered component in a die to meet required tolerances.

06-measurement-sizing-tolerance-measurement

02-Sizing-Sintering-Height gauge

Coining:

Repressing the sintered component in a die to increase the density and to give additional strength.

03-coldforge-coining

Infiltration:

Filling the pores of sintered product with molten metal to improve the physical properties.

Impregnation:

Filling of Oil, Grease or other Lubricants in a Sintered components such as Porous Heating

Machining:


Removing excess material by using cutting tool to imparts specific features such as Threads, Grooves, Undercuts etc, which are not practicable in powder metallurgy process.

04-thread cutting-powder metallurgy

Heat Treatment:

Process of Heating & Cooling at a desired rate to improve Grain Structure, Strength & Hardness.

05-heattreatment-metals-hardening

Plating:

Used for obtaining Resistance to Corrosion or better appearance.

05-electro plating-methods-examples

05-electro plating-application-examples

Powder metallurgy is used in the following industries:

  • Automotive (Brake pads, Gear parts, Connecting rods, Planetary carriers, Sintered Engine Bearings);

07-composite gears-automobile-parts

  • Aerospace (Light weight Aluminum base structural materials, High temperature Composite materials);

07-Aeroplane-boeing-powder-metallurgy-applications

07-composite-parts-Aerospace

  • Cutting tools (Hard metals, Diamond containing materials);

07-milling-cutters-tooling

  • Medicine (Dental implants, Surgical instruments);

07-medical-applications-powder metallurgy

  • Abrasives (Grinding and Polishing wheels and Discs);
  • Electrical, Electronic and Computer parts (Permanent magnets, Electrical contacts).

 

07-electronics-computer parts

DISI ENGINE

August 23, 2011

02-direct-injection-engine-disi engine-gasoline engine

In developing the DISI engine, we aimed to cool the interior of the cylinder as much as possible by promoting fuel vaporization and uniform mixing of atomized fuel and air. This produces a high charging efficiency of the air-fuel mixture and a high compression ratio, which results in significant improvements in both torque and fuel efficiency.


Characteristics of the direct injection engine:

  • Fuel is injected from a tiny nozzle into a relatively large cylinder, so it has a high latent heat of vaporization, which efficiently cools the air within (in-cylinder cooling effect).

  • The air temperature in the cylinder decreases, which means:

  • (1) more air may be charged into the combustion chamber, which produces increased torque.

  • (2) the engine is less prone to knocking. This contributes to increased torque, and enables a higher compression ratio that also contributes to good fuel efficiency.


In a direct injection engine, however, the fuel skips the waiting period it would have to endure inside a standard engine and instead proceeds straight to the combustion chamber. This allows the fuel to burn more evenly and thoroughly. For the driver, that can translate to better mileage and greater power to the wheels.

In the past, direct injection posed too many technical hurdles to make it worthwhile for mass market gasoline automobiles. But with advances in technology and greater pressure to make cars run more cleanly and efficiently, it looks as if gasoline direct injection — or GDI as it’s referred to in industry lingo — is here to stay. In fact, most of the major car manufacturers make or plan to soon introduce gasoline cars that take advantage of this fuel saving and performance enhancing system.