Posted tagged ‘Drive’

Mechanical Engineering Seminar Topics List 1

September 10, 2011

Special materials for ultra low temperature applications
Magnetic Bearing
Solar power Tower
Cylinder Deactivation
Electric Rocket Engine
Micro scale regenerative Heat Exchanger
Semi automatic transmission
Ergonomics
Electrostatic precipitator
Space stations
Semi solid Casting
Antilock Braking System
Reusable Launch Vehicles
Crystaline Silicon Solar Cells
Ball valve
Magnetic Bearing
Space Robotics
Ocean Thermal Energy
Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engine
Variable Speed Drives
Durable Prototyping
Simple Constitutive Models for Linear and Branched Polymers
Hydrogen Fuel Tank
Portable Power
Cryogenic Ball Valves
Telematics
Computer Modelling
LASER Sintering
In Mould Lamination Technique
Thermostatic Refrigerator
Space ShuttleSemisolid Casting
The Atomic Battery
Smart combustors
Biofiltration
Magnetic Refrigeration
Hydro Jetting
E85Amoeba Organization
Recent Advances in Statistical Quality Control
Cylinder Deactivation
Sustainable Engineering
Hydro Drive
Expert Technician System
Re-Entry Of Space Vehicle
Supercavitation
Micro-Scale Milling
stratified charge engine
CVCC
Tip Tronic Gear transmission
STEP CAD
New Age Tyres
Smart Materials
Wind From The Sun-Power Plant
Solar Powered Refrigerator
Liquid Hydrogen as an Aviation Fuel
Robotic Pioneering
BlueTec
Active Electrically Controlled Suspension
Air Cushion Vehicles
Babbitt metal
Hyperplane
Robotic Assistants For Aircraft Inspectors
Robots In Radioactive Environments
Therrmophoresis
Modern Air Pollution Control Technologies
Common Rail Direct Injection (Crdi) Engines
Thermo Hygrometer
Future of Portable Power
Automobile Air Conditioning
Transfer Machines
Micro- and Nano-Mechanics of Surface Contact Plasticity
Spark Sintering
IT Application in Complex Syatem Analysis
Research and Materials of Armor Design
Carbon Nanotubes
Wireless Energy Transmission
Hydraulic Elevators
Solar Heat Energy Storage In Phase Change Materials
Dynamics of Cutting Viscoelastics Materials
Snaps To Replace Screws
Vibration control Techniques
Pyrometers
Power From Space For Use On Earth
Advanced Propulsion Methods
Super Charging
Metal-Matrix Composite Processing
VANOS (Variable Nockenwellen Steuerung)
Frictionless Compressor Technology
Bearing Life Measurements
Hybrid Synergy Drive
Risks of Nano Engineered Particles
Rotating Scroll Power Compressor
Nano Spreader Cooling
Self Extinguishing PVC’s
Electromagnetic Clutches
Hypersonic Space Planes
Rapid Design for Lean Manufacturing
Bio-ethanol As Fuel
Snake robots
Compression Tube fittings
Supercase Hardening process
Over-the-wing Engine mount configration
Personal Transporters
Magnetic refrigeration
Design of an active car chassis frame incorporating magneto rheological fluid
All- wing Technology
High speed Propellers
MEMS “ a pollution free option for power generation
Improving aerodynamic performance of an aerospace vehicle
Electromagnetic Brakes
Antimatter -the ultimate energy
Lean to Steer Concept
Helicopters
Tidal technology
Thin Vacuum Conveyors
Hybrid vehicles
Six stroke engines
Scramjet engine
Probabilistic design of mechanical components
Regenerative braking
Damage identification in aging aircraft structures with piezoelectric wafer active sensors
3 Axis Digital Accelerometer
Smart material actuators
Biologically inspired robots
mass airflow sensor
Guided Missiles
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Data Fusion for Quality Improvements
Rocket Powered Aircraft
Space Shuttle
Hybrid Wind Electrolysis System
Cargo Storage in Space
Self Healing Space crafts
Elecro Magnetic Flowmeters
Green Factory
Threadless Couplings
Micro Moulding
Metal Nanoshells
Floating Wind mills
Micro Hydraulics
Diamond Cutting Tool And Coatings
Ball Piston machines
Atkinson cycle engine
Artificially Engineered Material Composites
Atomistic Characterization of Dislocation Nucleation and Fracture
Hy-Wire Car
CFD/FEM/FEA/CAE
Aerodonetics
Compound Vortex Controlled Combustion(
Orbital/Space Mechanics
Aerospace Propulsion
HANS-In F1 Racing
Advanced composites
Random vibrations
Cryogenic Grinding
Fuzzy logic in Aircraft stability
Airport management
Hydro Drive(
High angle of attack aerodynamics
Latest Trends in Automotive Engg.& Technology
Frictionless Compressor Technology
Conditional monitoring & fault Diagnosis
Bio-degradable polymers
Metal-Matrix Composite Processing(
Mechanical torque limitors
Ceramic fastners
Multi Valve Engine(
Pump Noise level reduction methods
Polymers castings
Biomass Fuelled Power Plant(
Low Gloss ABS system
Nanorobotics
Fuel Cells on Aerospace
Wind engineering
Aircraft design
BlueTec
Multiple material milling platform
Smart Pnuematics
Infrared Curing And Convection Curing(
Digital manufacturing
Hydroplane
Robots In Radioactive Environments
Lean engineering
Modular Workstations
Threadless Couplings
Supercavitation(
Robotic roller coasters
Energy saving motors
Carbon nanotube cloths
Continuously Variable Transmission(
Nuclear fuel reprocessing
Solar Power Satellite
Air Powered Car
Biomass Fuelled Power Plant
Self Healing Spacecrafts
Fractal Robot
Superconducting Rotating Machines
Heat caps
Corrosion resistant gear box
Scrubber(
Cam less Engines
tire & wheel without pneumatics
Active Electrically Controlled Suspension
Variable compression ratio engine
Electric power steering units
Dynamic Ride Control (DRC)
Oil Depletion in the World(
Automatic transmission tiptronic, 5-speed
Driver information system (DIS)
Sensotronic Braking System
Cargo storage in space
Molecular hinges
Aspheric lenses
Bioreactors
Jet Stream windmill
Flyash Utilisation
Mesotechnology
High Altitude Aeronautical Platforms
Automotive Infotainment
Advanced Plastics
Contactless energy transfer system
Handheld Radiation detector
Sea Power
Harvesting Wave power
Bench top wind tunnels
Molten oxide electrolysis
Ultra Nano Crystallline Diamond
Energy efficient turbo systems
Collision warning system
Antiroll suspension system
Porous Burner Technology
Brake Assisting Systems
Smart Autoreeling mechanism
Direct Manufacturing
Fuel cell powered Go-Karts
Nano in navy
Active roll-over protection system in Automobiles
Nanoscale Armor
Brake booster
biturbo
Double-wishbone suspension
Dynamic shift program (DSP)
E-gas
Adaptive air suspension
Small Satellites
Robot driven cars
Process Automation Techniques
DurAtomic Process
Intelligent Compact drives
Portable X-RaY Fluorescence Analyser
CeramicLike Coatings
Rotating Parallel Grippers
Jelly Filled Telephone Cables
Aluminium Alloy Conductors
HalBach array
Magnetic Levitation
Magnetic Launching
MicroTopography
Collision warning Systems
Active Front Lighting System
Carbon Nanotubes
Microbial Fuel Cells
Elecromagnetic Valves
Stealth Radar
Self Aware Robots
Eco-Freiendly Surface Treatments
Rapid Injection Moulding
Carbon Foam-Military Applications
Jet Powered Boat
Abrasive Etching
Air Casters
Airbags & ABS~
High Speed Precise Gear Boxes
Smart Ammunitions
Robotics~
Sono bouys
Active Decoy Systems
Full Colour 3D Modelling Using Rapid Prototyping
Underwater Welding~
Micro Gravity
AeroCapture
Single Crystal Turbine Aerofoil
Space Station~
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM)
Sky Rocket
Jetex Engine
Electrochemical Machining (ECM) & EBM~
Concept Cars
Research Aircrafts
Hydroplane
Cell Integration Into A Manufacturing System~
Micro Batteries
ArcJet Rocket
Global Positioning System~
Pulsed Plasma Thruster
Resistojet Rocket
Floating Power Stations~
Water Rocket
Ablative MAterials
Aircraft Propeller~
Air- Augmented Rocket
Aerospikes
Space Shuttle Boosters
Electronic Road Pricing System~
Advanced Rocket Motors
Space Shuttle
Rocket Powered Aircraft
Electronbeam Machining~
Hydrogen Generation via Wind Power Electrolysis
Combustion Research
Virtual Reality~
Liquid Injection Thrust Vectoring (LITV)
Energy Saving Motors
Blended Winged Aircraft
Nanoscale Fractals
Nanomaterial Based Catalyst
Regenerative Fuel Cells
Self Repairing Composites
Laod Sensing Hydraulics
Modular workstations
Stereoscopic Projection Systems
Virtual Reality Visualisation
Steer- By -Wire
Advanced Off-set printing

Vibratory conveyor / Oscillating Conveyor

September 8, 2011


01-vibrating conveyor- vibrating conveyor systems-vibrating conveyor parts-shaker conveyor-inertia conveyor-reciprocating conveyor-oscillating conveyor

A vibratory conveyor essentially consists of an open or closed trough or pipe, generally horizontal but not always so, and which is elastically supported on a base structure or suspended from an overhead structure by springs. The trough or pipe is caused to oscillate at high frequency and small amplitude by an appropriate drive mechanism. Vibratory conveyors are commonly employed in industry to carry a wide variety of particulate and granular types of bulk materials. The fundamental action of the vibrating troughs on the bulk material loaded on it is to throw the particles upward in the forward direction so that the material performs series of short hopping movement and propagates at a certain speed.

Oscillating conveyors are utilized to convey sand or other granular particles at a desired rate. The conveyor is generally placed under a vibrating shakeout or a grid to eliminate direct handling of hot sand by the belt conveyor. In the process of reciprocation, the oscillating conveyor cools the hot sand to some extent which increases the life of the return sand conveyor belt.

An important characteristic of vibratory conveyor is the ease with which the flow rate of the conveyed material can be controlled by adjusting the amplitude and or frequency of the vibration. This particular aspects of such conveyor has led to the wide spread application of vibrating trough as feeders employed to supply material in controlled amount to various machines. When the trough is replaced by a screen, the vibratory conveyor may serve as vibrating screen, which has wide application in various industries. A distinction must be made between feeders and conveyors. A feeder is used as a discharge device under a storage hopper or bin and is subjected to varying head loads. A conveyor requires regulated feed rate and must not operate under varying head load conditions.

Construction details of Oscillating Conveyor:

01-vibrating conveyor parts-oscillating conveyor design-oscillatory motion design-vibrating trough conveyors-vibrating oscillatory machine-vibrating machine

01-vibrating conveyor parts-vibrating conveyor design-vibrating conveyor components-vibrating feeders-vibrating machine-vibrating motor-horizontal motion vibrating bed-motion of vibrating systems

Oscillating Conveyor System

September 8, 2011

Selection of vibratory conveyor:

01-vibrating conveyor-vibrating conveyor applications-vibrating conveyor belt-vibrating conveyor motor-oscillator-reciprocating conveyor-shaker conveyor-inertia conveyor

The oscillating motion of the trough is achieved via specially designed inclined arms and an eccentric shaft driven by a motor through V-belts. The eccentric shaft is mounted on anti friction bearings and has V-pulleys at both ends with weights on them to counteract the unbalancing force. The rotation of the eccentric shaft provides a forward and backward motion to a connecting arm attached to the trough through a rubberized pin. The trough motion is predominantly horizontal with some vertical component, which causes it to oscillate with a pattern conductive to conveying material. A retaining spring assembly at the back of the trough absorbs shock load. All components including drive motor are mounted on a rigidly constructed base frame.

Advantages:

· Hot and abrasive materials can be handled

· Cooling, drying and de-watering operation can be done during transport

· Scalping, screening or picking can be done

· Units can be covered and made dust tight

· Simple construction and low head room

· Can be made leak proof

Disadvantages:

· Relatively short length of conveying ( about 50m Maximum)

· Limited capacity, about 350 tons per hour for length of conveying of 30 m.

· Some degradation of material takes place.

Applications:

Vibratory conveyors find wide spread application in the transportation of dusty, hot, toxic, and chemically aggressive bulk material through a closed trough or pipe in chemical, metallurgical, mining industries and manufacturing of building materials.

Vibratory conveyors are also employed for transportation of steel chips in machine shop, hot knocked out sand, wastes and small castings in foundry shop. Vibratory feeders are also in use for delivery of small machine parts like screws, rivets etc.

Sticky materials like wet clay or sand are unsuitable for vibratory conveyors. In handling finely pulverized materials, like cement etc., the performance of such conveyors are reported to be poor.

Vibratory conveyors are hardly employed for handling common bulk loads, such as sand, gravel, coal etc as the same can be done more efficiency by belt conveyors.

PULLEY

August 23, 2011

Pulley:

01-standard pulley-spun end curve crown pulley-steel pulley-straight faced pulley-pulley mechanism-pulley ratio-pulley size-pulley selection

The diameters of standard pulleys are: 200, 250, 315, 400, 500, 630, 800, 1000, 1250, 1400 and 1600 mm. pulley may be straight faced or crowned. The crown serves to keep the belt centered. The height of the crown is usually 0.5% of the pulley width, but not less than 4 mm. The pulley diameter Dp depends on the number of plies of belt and may be also be determined from the formula:

Dp > K.i (mm)

Where

K = a factor depending on the number of plies (125 to 150)

i = no of plies

The compound value should be rounded off to the nearest standard size. While selecting the pulley diameter it should be ascertained that the diameter selected is larger than the minimum diameter of pulley for the particular belt selected.

The drive pulley may be lagged by rubber coating whenever necessary, to increase the coefficient of friction. The lagging thickness shall vary between 6 to 12 mm. The hardness of rubber lagging of the pulley shall be less than that of the cover rubber of the running belt.

Pulley types:


Pulleys are manufactured in a wide range of sizes, consisting of a continuous rim and two end discs fitted with hubs. In most of the conveyor pulleys intermediate stiffening discs are welded inside the rim. Other pulleys are self cleaning wing types which are used as the tail, take-up, or snub pulley where material tends to build up on the pulley face. Magnetic types of pulleys are used to remove tramp iron from the material being conveyed.

Typical welded steel pulley-Drum conveyor pulley

01-typical welded steel pulley-pulley types-pulley design-pulley system-pulley problems-pulley size

Spun end curve crown pulley

01-conveyor pulleys-spun end crown pulley-self cleaning wing pulley-snub pulley-pulley face-magenetic pulley

Spiral drum conveyor pulley

01-spiral drum conveyor pulley-pulley types-pulley with ball bearings-pulley for handling bulk load

Welded steel pulley with diamond grooved lagging

01-types of pulley-welded steel pulley-grooved lagging-belt conveyor drive-belt conveyor resistance-belt wrapping over pulleys

Welded steel pulley with grooved Lagging

01-welded steel pulley with grooved lagging-pulley types-belt conveyor speed reduction mechanism-belt conveyor drive arrangement

Spiral Wing Conveyor pulley

01-spiral wing conveyor pulley-belt conveyor calculation-belt conveyor formula-belt conveyor gallery

 

Power calculation for the drive unit:

The horse power required at the drive of a belt conveyor is derived from the following formula:

H.P = Te . V

Where

Te is the effective tension in the belt in N

V = velocity of the belt in m/s

The required effective tension Te on the driving pulley of a belt conveyor is obtained by adding up all the resistances.

CONVEYOR

August 23, 2011

Conveyor Take-up Arrangement:

01-belt conveyor-take up arrangement-screw take up-take up pulley-automatic take up device-fixed take up device-manual take up-self adjusting take up devices


All belt conveyors require the use of some form of take-up device for the following reasons:

  • To ensure adequate tension of the belt leaving the drive pulley so as to avoid any slippage of the belt
  • To ensure proper belt tension at the loading and other points along the conveyor
  • To compensate for changes in belt length due to elongation
  • To provide extra length of belt when necessary for splicing purpose.

Usually there are two types of take up arrangements.

  • Fixed take up device that may be adjusted periodically by manual operation
  • Automatic take up devices for constant load type

In a screw take up system the take up pulley rotates in two bearing blocks which may slide on stationery guide ways with the help of two screws. The tension is created by the two screws which are tightened and periodically adjusted with a spanner. It is preferable to use screws with trapezoidal thread t decrease the effort required to tighten the belt.

01-hydraulic take up device-pneumatic take up device-electrical take up device-self adjusting take up device-automatic take up device

The main problem with the use of manual take-up is that it requires a vigilant and careful operator to observe when take up adjustment is required. Perfect tension adjustment with this system is also not possible. For this reason these devices are used only in case of short conveyors of up 60 m length and light duty.

In automatic take up arrangement the take up pulley is mounted on slides or on a trolley which is pulled backwards by means of a steel rope and deflecting pulleys. The carriage travels on guide ways mounted parallel to the longitudinal axis of the conveyor, i.e., horizontally in horizontal conveyors and at an incline in inclined conveyors. Hydraulic, pneumatic and electrical take up devices are also used.

Automatic take-up has the following features:

  • It is self adjusting and automatic
  • Greater take-up movement is possible.

HYDRAULIC HYBRID SYSTEM

August 23, 2011

01-hydraulic hybrid system-Hydraulic hybrid vehicles-HHV-hydraulic motors to power wheels-accumulators to store the pressurized  fluid nitrogen gas 

Introduction To Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles:

Hybrid vehicles use two sources of power to drive the wheels. In a hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) a regular internal combustion engine and a hydraulic motor are used to power the wheels.

Hydraulic hybrid systems consist of two key components:

  • High pressure hydraulic fluid vessels called accumulators, and
  • Hydraulic drive pump/motors.

Working of Hydraulic Hybrid Systems:

01-hydraulic-hybrid-retrofit-hydraulic hybrid system-HHS-regenerating braking energy

The accumulators are used to store pressurized fluid. Acting as a motor, the hydraulic drive uses the pressurized fluid (Above 3000 psi) to rotate the wheels. Acting as a pump, the hydraulic drive is used to re-pressurize hydraulic fluid by using the vehicle’s momentum, thereby converting kinetic energy into potential energy. This process of converting kinetic energy from momentum and storing it is called regenerative braking.

The hydraulic system offers great advantages for vehicles operating in stop and go conditions because the system can capture large amounts of energy when the brakes are applied.

The hydraulic components work in conjunction with the primary. Making up the main hydraulic components are two hydraulic accumulator vessels which store hydraulic fluid compressing inert nitrogen gas and one or more hydraulic pump/motor units.

The hydraulic hybrid system is made up of four components.

  • The working fluid
  • The reservoir
  • The pump or motor
  • The accumulator

The pump or motor installed in the system extracts kinetic energy during braking. This in turn pumps the working fluid from the reservoir to the accumulator, which eventually gets pressurized. The pressurized working fluid then provides energy to the pump or motor to power the vehicle when it accelerates. There are two types of hydraulic hybrid systems – the parallel hydraulic hybrid system and the series hydraulic hybrid system. In the parallel hydraulic hybrid, the pump is connected to the drive-shafts through a transmission box, while in series hydraulic hybrid, the pump is directly connected to the drive-shaft.

There are two types of HHVs:

  • Parallel and
  • Series.

Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles:

01-hydraulic hybrid cars-HLA system-pump mode to motor mode-parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicles-nitrogen accumulator pressure 5000 psi

In parallel HHVs both the engine and the hydraulic drive system are mechanically coupled to the wheels. The hydraulic pump-motor is then integrated into the driveshaft or differential.

Series Hydraulic Hybrid vehicles:

01-hydraulic hybrid vehicles-combines regular internal combustion engine- hydraulic motor as a accumulator-kinetic energy into potential energy to drive the vehicle

Series HHVs rely entirely on hydraulic pressure to drive the wheels, which means the engine does not directly provide mechanical power to the wheels. In a series HHV configuration, an engine is attached to a hydraulic engine pump to provide additional fluid pressure to the drive pump/motor when needed.

Advantages:

  • Higher fuel efficiency.  (25-45 percent improvement in fuel economy)
  • Lower emissions.  (20 to 30 percent)
  • Reduced operating costs.
  • Better acceleration performance.

ULTIMATE ECO CAR

August 23, 2011

01-ultimate_eco_car-developments of hybrid technology-development of hydrogen fuel-fuel cell-hybrid technology

Continuous improvement in conventional engines, including lean-burn gasoline engines, direct injection gasoline engines and common rail direct-injection diesel engines, as well as engines modified to use alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or electricity (for Electric Vehicle).

Engineers may disagree about which fuel or car propulsion system is best, but they do agree that hybrid technology is the core for eco-car development.


01-ultimate_eco_car-diesel hybrid-fuel cell vehicle-alternate fuel hybrid vehicles


“Plug-in hybrid” technology brings further potential for substantial CO2 emissions reductions from vehicles. It has a higher battery capacity and is thus more fuel-efficient than the current hybrid, assisted by the power of engine. For a short-distance drive, it could be run with electricity charged during the night. Depending on how electricity is generated, the vehicle could run with much lower CO2 emissions. In order to commercialize the plug-in hybrid, there is again a need for a breakthrough in battery technology. It is necessary to develop a smaller-sized battery with higher capacity. Plug-in hybrids could contribute to reducing substantial amounts of CO2 emissions from vehicles, as well as fossil fuel use, by charging from cleaner electricity sources in the future.

Challenges of increasing power performance

In order to improve the driving performance, its power train was completely redesigned. To increase motor output, a high-voltage power-control was adopted. Although this technology was used in industrial machines and trains, the idea of incorporating it into an automobile did not easily occur at first. First of all, the system itself would take up a substantial amount of space and secondly, there was no prior example of applying this method to a motor that switches between output and power generation at such a dizzy pace.

Once the development of the high-voltage power circuit began, there was a mountain of problems, such as what to do about the heat generated by increasing voltage and the noise generated. To reevaluate the power train, the project team had to produce prototypes and repeat numerous tests. The prototyping stage went to seven prototypes instead of the usual three, and the total distance driven by these prototypes during testing exceeded one million kilometers.