Posted tagged ‘engine’


August 23, 2011

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Continuous improvement in conventional engines, including lean-burn gasoline engines, direct injection gasoline engines and common rail direct-injection diesel engines, as well as engines modified to use alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or electricity (for Electric Vehicle).

Engineers may disagree about which fuel or car propulsion system is best, but they do agree that hybrid technology is the core for eco-car development.

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“Plug-in hybrid” technology brings further potential for substantial CO2 emissions reductions from vehicles. It has a higher battery capacity and is thus more fuel-efficient than the current hybrid, assisted by the power of engine. For a short-distance drive, it could be run with electricity charged during the night. Depending on how electricity is generated, the vehicle could run with much lower CO2 emissions. In order to commercialize the plug-in hybrid, there is again a need for a breakthrough in battery technology. It is necessary to develop a smaller-sized battery with higher capacity. Plug-in hybrids could contribute to reducing substantial amounts of CO2 emissions from vehicles, as well as fossil fuel use, by charging from cleaner electricity sources in the future.

Challenges of increasing power performance

In order to improve the driving performance, its power train was completely redesigned. To increase motor output, a high-voltage power-control was adopted. Although this technology was used in industrial machines and trains, the idea of incorporating it into an automobile did not easily occur at first. First of all, the system itself would take up a substantial amount of space and secondly, there was no prior example of applying this method to a motor that switches between output and power generation at such a dizzy pace.

Once the development of the high-voltage power circuit began, there was a mountain of problems, such as what to do about the heat generated by increasing voltage and the noise generated. To reevaluate the power train, the project team had to produce prototypes and repeat numerous tests. The prototyping stage went to seven prototypes instead of the usual three, and the total distance driven by these prototypes during testing exceeded one million kilometers.


August 22, 2011

1. What is the importance of the Thermodynamics in the field of Mechanical Engineering?
All the mechanical engineering systems are studied with the help of thermodynamics. Hence it is very important for the mechanical engineers.

2. How many Laws of Thermodynamics are there?
There are three laws of the thermodynamics.

First Law: Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. It can only change forms.In any process in an isolated system, the total energy remains the same.

Second Law: When two isolated systems in separate but nearby regions of space, each in thermodynamic equilibrium in itself, but not in equilibrium with each other at first, are at some time allowed to interact, breaking the isolation that separates the two systems, and they exchange matter or energy, they will eventually reach a mutual thermodynamic equilibrium. The sum of the entropies of the initial, isolated systems is less than or equal to the entropy of the final exchanging systems. In the process of reaching a new thermodynamic equilibrium, entropy has increased, or at least has not decreased.

Third Law: As temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a minimum.

3. State Laws of conservation of energy?
According to the laws of conservation of energy, “energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. It can only be transformed from one form to another.”

4. Is the boiler a closed system?
Yes definitely the boiler is a closed system.

5. What is Carnot engine?
It was being designed by Carnot and let me tell you that Carnot engine is an imaginary engine which follows the Carnot cycle and provides 100% efficiency.

6. Which formula forms a link between the Thermodynamics and Electro chemistry?
Gibbs Helmholtz formula is the formula which forms the link between the thermodynamics and electromagnetism.

∆Hs/R = [∂ lnp /∂ (1/T)]x

where: x – mole fraction of CO2 in the liquid phase
p – CO2 partial pressure (kPa)
T – temperature (K)
R – universal gas constant
α – mole ratio in the liquid phase (mole CO2 per mole of amine)

7. Which is the hardest compound known?

8. What is Hess Law?
According to the Hess law the energy transfer is simply independent of the path being followed. If the reactant and the product of the whole process are the same then same amount of energy will be dissipated or absorbed.

9. Which has more efficiency: Diesel engine or Petrol engines?
Off course Diesel engine has the better efficiency out of two.