Posted tagged ‘fuel injectors’

Turbo-Charger

September 28, 2011

01-twin turbo-supercharger and turbo

A turbocharger is actually a type of supercharger. Originally, the turbocharger was called a “turbo super charger.” Obviously, the name was shortened out of convenience.

01-Twincharger_theory-turbocharger layout diagram

A turbocharger’s purpose is to compress the oxygen entering a car’s engine, increasing the amount of oxygen that enters and thereby increasing the power output. Unlike the belt-driven supercharger that is normally thought of when one hears the word “supercharger,” the turbocharger is powered by the car’s own exhaust gases. In other words, a turbocharger takes a by-product of the engine that would otherwise be useless, and uses it to increase the car’s horsepower.

01-turbo-parts-turbocharger section-compressor air discharge

Cars without a turbocharger or supercharger are called normally aspirated. Normally aspirated cars draw air into the engine through an air filter; the air then passes through a meter, which monitors and regulates the amount of air that enters the system. The air is then delivered to the engine’s combustion chambers, along with a controlled amount of fuel from the carburetor or fuel injectors.

In a turbocharged engine, however, the air is compressed so that more oxygen will fit in the combustion chamber, dramatically increasing the burning power of the engine. The turbocharger is composed of two main parts: the compressor, which compresses the air in the intake; and the turbine, which draws the exhaust gases and uses them to power the compressor. Another commonly used term in relation to turbochargers is boost, which refers to the amount of pressure the air in the intake is subjected to; in other words, the more compressed the air is, the higher the boost.

Although the increase in power is advantageous to the car — and likely a source of enjoyment for the driver — a turbocharger has its drawbacks. First and foremost, a turbocharged engine must have a lower compression ratio than a normally aspirated engine. For this reason, one cannot simply put a turbocharger on an engine that was intended for normal aspiration without seriously undermining the life and performance of the engine. Also, a lower compression ratio means the engine will run less efficiently at low power.

Another major drawback of a turbocharger is the phenomenon known as turbo lag. Because the turbocharger runs on exhaust gases, the turbine requires a build-up of exhaust before it can power the compressor; this means that the engine must pick up speed before the turbocharger can kick in. Additionally, the inlet air grows hotter as it is compressed, reducing its density, and thereby its efficiency in the combustion chamber; a radiator-like device called an intercooler is often used to counter this effect in turbocharged engines.

Fuel Injectors

September 8, 2011
Each cylinder has a fuel injector designed to meter and inject fuel into the cylinder at the proper instant. To accomplish this function, the injectors are actuated by the engine’s camshaft. The camshaft provides the timing and pumping action used by the injector to inject the fuel. The injectors meter the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder on each stroke. The amount of fuel to be injected by each injector is set by a mechanical linkage called the fuel rack. The fuel rack position is controlled by the engine’s governor. The governor determines the amount of fuel required to maintain the desired engine speed and adjusts the amount to be injected by adjusting
the position of the fuel rack.

Each injector operates in the following manner. As illustrated in Figure 26, fuel under pressure enters the injector through the injector’s filter cap and filter element. From the filter element the fuel travels down into the supply chamber (that area between the plunger bushing and the spill deflector). The plunger operates up and down in the bushing, the bore of which is open to the fuel supply in the supply chamber by two funnel-shaped ports in the plunger bushing.


Figure 26 Fuel Injector Cutway

The motion of the injector rocker arm (not shown) is transmitted to the plunger by the injector follower which bears against the follower spring. As the plunger moves downward under pressure of the injector rocker arm, a portion of the fuel trapped under the plunger is displaced into the supply chamber through the lower port until the port is closed off by the lower end of the plunger. The fuel trapped below the plunger is then forced up through the central bore of the plunger and back out the upper port until the upper port is closed off by the downward motion of the plunger.

With the upper and lower ports both closed off, the remaining fuel under the plunger is subjected to an increase in pressure by the downward motion of the plunger.
When sufficient pressure has built up, the injector valve is lifted off its seat and the fuel is forced through small orifices in the spray tip and atomized into the combustion chamber. A check valve, mounted in the spray tip, prevents air in the combustion chamber from flowing back into the fuel injector. The plunger is then returned back to its original position by the injector follower spring.

On the return upward movement of the plunger, the high pressure cylinder within the bushing is again filled with fresh fuel oil through the ports. The constant circulation of fresh, cool fuel through the injector renews the fuel supply in the chamber and helps cool the injector. The fuel flow also effectively removes all traces of air that might otherwise accumulate in the system.

The fuel injector outlet opening, through which the excess fuel returns to the fuel return manifold and then back to the fuel tank, is adjacent to the inlet opening and contains a filter element exactly the same as the one on the fuel inlet side. In addition to the reciprocating motion of the plunger, the plunger can be rotated during operation around its axis by the gear which meshes with the fuel rack. For metering the fuel, an upper helix and a lower helix are machined in the lower part of the plunger. The relation of the helices to the two ports in the injector bushing changes with the rotation of the plunger.

Changing the position of the helices, by rotating the plunger, retards or advances the closing of the ports and the beginning and ending of the injection period. At the same time, it increases or decreases the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder. Figure 27 illustrates the various plunger positions from NO LOAD to FULL LOAD. With the control rack pulled all the way (no injection), the upper port is not closed by the helix until after the lower port is uncovered.

Consequently, with the rack in this position, all of the fuel is forced back into the supply chamber and no injection of fuel takes place. With the control rack pushed all the way in (full injection), the upper port is closed shortly after the lower port has been covered, thus producing a maximum effective stroke and maximum fuel injection. From this no-injection position to the full-injection position (full rack movement), the contour of the upper helix advances the closing of the ports and the beginning of injection.


Fig 27 Fuel Injector Plunger