Posted tagged ‘half’


September 10, 2011

biofuel-from-whiskyTill date, all types of alcoholic drinks, or booze as they are commonly called, are produced only with the intention of drinking for socializing, fun, recreation and to drown one’s sorrows.
However the researchers of Abertay’s School of Contemporary Science have found a different and more beneficial use for alcoholic drinks.

The researchers here have been awarded the prestigious Carnegie Trust Research Grant to help them in the investigation of turning the residues that are found in the production of beer and whisky, into a form of renewable biofuel.

This is anticipated to be a project that takes about a year to find new methods of turning the spent grain of these drinks into an efficient biofuel, bioethanol.

Bioethanol is a much more environmentally friendly alternative to the present fossil fuels you find around you.
The reason it is considered better to using bioethanol, instead of traditional fuels for your fueling purposes is that it is CO2 neutral. It is also produces 65% less greenhouse gas emissions because it burns at temperatures that are at a much better level for fire safety.

With the supply of fuel being predicted to be finite, with half of the world’s oil supply already having been consumed in the passed 200 years, scientists are looking for simple and cost effective means of producing more biofuels from low value and waste products. there is a race going on for finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fuels for the future of the world, and this is why spent grains of alcohol and beer manufacture are considered to be a safe and efficient option for this.

Today Brazil and USA together produce over 70% of global supplies through the creation of bioethanol from sugarcane and maize starch respectively.
Though the US has beaten Brazil in its production, Brazil is still the largest exporter that sends about 3.2 billion liters of bioethanol in the last year alone.

Like all things in life, there are some negative aspects to this method of generating fuels. Both these countries tend to create an increased demand for land to grow the energy crops they require for generating bioethanol. In fact, in countries like Brazil, the safety of tropical forests too is threatened where even the benefits of using biofuel too may be cancelled out.

This is why researchers are considering using the waste products received from the manufacture of alcohol for creating biofuels. This may be a more complicated process of turning waste products into bioethanol. However it is a perfect example of a second generation biofuel.

The products used for the creation of this biofuel is usually disposed of or at the most, used for processing animal feed.

Instead of this, using them to produce fuel would be an attractive means of using this resource. However presently, there are many technical challenges and hindrances that have to be overcome to help in converting waste biomass into fuel.

And the search is still on for a more efficient and cost effective process for producing biofuels from alcoholic wastes.

Design of Screw Conveyor

September 8, 2011

01-screw conveyor-screw conveyor design-screw conveyor design calculations-screw conveyor housing- screw conveyor flights- screw conveyor formulae- screw conveyor flow rates

The size of screw conveyor depends on two factors

1. The capacity of the conveyor

2. The lump size of the material to be conveyed (Maximum dimensions of the particle)

Usually there are three ranges of lump sizes which are considered for selection of screw size. These are:

· A mixture of lumps and fines in which not more than 10% are lumps ranging from maximum size to one half of the maximum, and 90% are lumps smaller than one half of the maximum size.

· A mixture of lump and fines in which not more than 25% are lumps ranging from the maximum size to one half of the maximum, and 75% are lumps smaller than one half of the maximum size.

· A mixture of lump only in which 95% or more are lumps ranging from maximum size to one half of the maximum size and 5% or less are lumps less than one tenth of the maximum size.

The allowable size of a lump in a screw conveyor is a function of the radial clearance between the outside diameter of the central pipe and the radius of the inside of the screw trough, as well as the proportion of the lumps in the mixture.

The lump size of the material affects the selection of screw diameter which should be at least 12 times larger than the lump size of a sized material and four times larger than the largest lumps of an un-sized material.

Example, if screw diameter is 250mm means radial clearance is 105mm, & Maximum lump size is 60mm of 10% lumps.

Capacity of Screw Conveyor:

01-screw conveyor capacity calculation-screw conveyor manufacturers-screw conveyor shaft- screw conveyor capacity- screw conveyor components- screw conveyor bearings


The capacity of a screw conveyor depends on the screw diameter, screw pitch, speed of the screw and the loading efficiency of the cross sectional area of the screw. The capacity of a screw conveyor with a continuous screw:

Q = V. ρ

Q = 60. (π/4).D2.S.n.ψ.ρ.C


Q = capacity of a screw conveyor

V = Volumetric capacity in m3/Hr

ρ = Bulk density of the material, kg/m3

D = Nominal diameter of Screw in m

S = Screw pitch in m

N = RPM of screw

Ψ = Loading efficiency of the screw

C = Factor to take into account the inclination of the conveyor


Screw Pitch:

Commonly the screw pitch is taken equal to the diameter of the screw D. However it may range 0.75 – 1.0 times the diameter of the screw.





01-screw conveyor pitch- screw conveyor inlet- screw conveyor output- screw conveyor blade- screw conveyor motor

Screw Diameter:


Nominal Size D Trough height from center of screw shaft to upper edge of the trough Trough width C Thickness of Tough Tubular shaft (d1 * Thickness)

Outside diameter of solid shaft

Coupling diameter of shaft
Heavy Duty Medium Duty Light Duty
100 63 120 2 1.6 33.7*2.5 30 25
125 75 145 2 1.6 33.7*2.5 30 25
160 90 180 5 3.15 1.6 42.4*2.5 35 40
200 112 220 5 3.15 2 48.3*3.5 40 40
250 140 270 5 3.15 2 60.3*4 50 50
315 180 335 5 3.15 76.1*5 60 50
400 224 420 5 3.15 76.1*5 60 75
500 280 530 5 3.15 88.9*5 70 75

RPM of Screw:

The usual range of RPM of screw is 10 to 165. It depends on the diameter of screw and the type of material (Max RPM of screw conveyor is 165)

Loading efficiency:

The value of loading efficiency should be taken large for materials which are free flowing and non abrasive, while for materials which are not free flowing and or abrasive in nature, the value should be taken low:

Ψ = 0.12 to 0.15 for abrasive material

= 0.25 to 0.3 for mildly abrasive material

= 0.4 to 0.45 for non abrasive free flowing materials

Inclination Factor:

The inclination factor C is determined by the angle of screw conveyor with the horizontal.


Angle of screw with the horizontal 10° 15° 20°
Value of factor C 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.65

Types of screw flight:

The screw of the conveyor may be right hand or left hand, the right hand type being the usual design. The threads of the screw may be single, double or triple.

The flight of the screws may be made in either of the two ways:

1. As Helicoids

2. As Sectional flight

Helicoids Flight:

They are formed from a flat bar or strip into a continues helix. The threads are thinner at the outer edge and thicker at the inner edge.

01-screw conveyor types- screw conveyor trough- screw conveyor theory- screw conveyor thrust bearings- screw conveyor torque-helicoid flights-continues helix-flight of screws

Sectional flights:

Sectional flights are formed from a flat disc and the thickness of the thread is uniform throughout. A continuous helix is made by joining a number of sectional flights together on a piece of pipe and butt welded them. Various styles of screw flights are in use, depending on the service required.

01- screw conveyor technology- screw conveyor incline- screw conveyor introduction- screw conveyor inlet- screw conveyor information- screw conveyor output-sectional flights-continuous helix-short pitch

Some of the typical configurations are:

1. Short pitch or continuous flight:

If the conveyor is required to handle dry granular or powdered materials that do not pack, this style of flight may be selected. It is of regular construction and recommended for inclined conveyors having a slope of 20 or more, including vertical conveyors. This style is extensively used as feeder screw.

2. Ribbon flight:

If the conveyor is to handle lumpy, clinging, sticky, gummy or viscous substances, this type flight may be selected. It consists of continuous helical flight formed from steel bar and secured to the pipe by supporting lugs.

01-screw conveyor part- screw conveyor pitch- screw conveyor power- screw conveyor length- screw conveyor layout- screw conveyor lift- screw conveyor loading-ribbon flight-cut flight

3. Cut flight:

In this type of flight screws have notches cut in the periphery of the flight. These notches supplement the conveying with moderate mixing action. They are recommended for conveyors required to handle light, fine, granular or flaky materials.

01-screw conveyor length- screw conveyor layout- screw conveyor lift- screw conveyor loading-cut flight-screw flight-sectional flight

4. Cut and folded flights:

This type of flight is characterized by notches as in cut flight, together with folded segments. This type of flight creates agitation and aeration resulting in better mixing. This type of flight is used to handle light or medium weight materials having fine, granular or flaky materials.

5. Some screw conveyors have cut flight with paddles mounted at regular intervals. The paddles counteract the flow of material past the flight resulting in greater agitation and mixing.

6. Sometimes screws are made of stainless steel to suit special requirements, like the sanitation requirements for handling food, drugs and other hygienic materials.