Posted tagged ‘Manganese’

Artificial photosynthesis

August 23, 2011

Artificial photosynthesis is one of the newer ways researchers are exploring to capture the energy of sunlight reaching earth.

01-photosynthetic reaction-receive sunlight as photons-transfer energy to a network of pigment protein complexes

Photosynthesis:

01-Photosynthesis-basics-operation-oxygen release-hydrogen splits


Photosynthesis is the conversion of sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into usable fuel and it is typically discussed in relation to plants where the fuel is carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Using only 3 percent of the sunlight that reaches the planet, plants collectively perform massive energy conversions, converting just over 1,100 billion tons of CO2 into food sources for animals every year.

Photovoltaic Technology:

This harnessing of the sun represents a virtually untapped potential for generating energy for human use at a time when efforts to commercialize photovoltaic–cell technology are underway. Using a semiconductor–based system, photovoltaic technology converts sunlight to electricity, but in an expensive and somewhat inefficient manner with notable shortcomings related to energy storage and the dynamics of weather and available sunlight.

Artificial Photosynthesis:

01-photosynthesis system-Artificial Photosynthesis-Artificial Photosynthesis Solar energy to produce hydrogen directly used in fuel cell

Two things occur as plants convert sunlight into energy:

  • Sunlight is harvested using chlorophyll and a collection of proteins and enzymes, and
  • Water molecules are split into hydrogen, electrons, and oxygen.

These electrons and oxygen then turn the CO2 into carbohydrates, after which oxygen is expelled.

Rather than release only oxygen at the end of this reaction, an artificial process designed to produce energy for human use will need to release liquid hydrogen or methanol, which will in turn be used as liquid fuel or channeled into a fuel cell. The processes of producing hydrogen and capturing sunlight are not a problem. The challenge lies in developing a catalyst to split the water molecules and get the electrons that start the chemical process  to produce the hydrogen.

There are a number of promising catalysts available, that, once perfected, could have a profound impact on how we address the energy supply challenge:

  • Manganese directly mimics the biology found in plants.
  • Titanium Dioxide is used in dye-sensitized cell.
  • Cobalt Oxide is very abundant, stable and efficient as a catalyst

Artificial Photosynthesis Operation:

01-artificial Photosynthesis-arrays of microwave coated catalysts-split water to make hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbon fuels

Under the fuel through artificial photosynthesis scenario, nano tubes embedded within a membrane would act like green leaves, using incident solar radiation (H³) to split water molecules (H2O), freeing up electrons and oxygen (O2) that then react with carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce a fuel, shown here as methanol (CH3OH). The result is a renewable green energy source that also helps scrub the atmosphere of excessive carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels.

01-artificial photosynthesis solar collector to energy-concentrated solar radiation- convert photosynthesis to Hydrogen and oxygen

History:

Plants use organic compounds that need to be continuously renewed. Researchers are looking for inorganic compounds that catalyze the needed reactions and are both efficient and widely available.

The research has been significantly boosted by the application of nano technology. It’s a good example of the step wise progress in the scientific world.

Studies earlier in the decade showed that crystals iridium efficiently drove the reduction of CO2, but iridium is extremely rare so technology that required its use would be expensive and could never be used on a large scale.

Cobalt crystals were tried. They worked, and cobalt is widely available, but the original formulations weren’t at all efficient.

Things changed with the introduction of nano technology.

The main point is that this unique approach increasing appears to be feasible. It has the advantage of harnessing solar energy in a form that can be stored and used with greater efficiency than batteries and it is at least carbon neutral.

METALLURGY INTERVIEW

August 22, 2011

01-interview-interview questions-placement paper-interview questions and answers-interview tips-company or firm - interview skills-interview preparation

  • What is the composition of Grey cast iron Grade 20?

Carbon      : 3.10 – 3.25%         Silicon : 1.75-1.95%    Manganese : 0.50 – 0.7%Sulphur : 0.05 – 0.07%       Phosporous : 0.04 – 0.07%

  • What is the composition of Cast iron Grade 35?

Carbon=2.90-3.10%Manganese=0.60-1.00%Silicon=1.50-1.90%Sulphur=0.10%

Phosphorus=0.15%  Chromium=0.30%        Molybdenum=0.30%   Cupper=0.25%

  • What are the super alloys?

Super alloys is an alloy that exhibits excellent mechanical strength and creep resistance at high temperatures, having good surface finish.

  • Why the Super alloys used for land-based turbines?

Super alloys are the top most alloys used for their excellent strength and corrosion resistance as well as oxidation resistance. No other alloys can compete with these grade.

  • What kinds of NDT methods are available?

1.Visual Inspection

2.Microscopy inspection

3.Radiography Test

4.Dye Penetrate technique

5.Ultrasonic testing

6.Magnetic Particle inspection

7.Eddy Current technology

8.Acoustic Emission

9. Thermograph

10.Replica Metallographic

  • What is Stress Corrosion cracking?

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a process involving the initiation of cracks and their propagation, possibly up to complete failure of a component, due to the combined action of tensile mechanical loading and a corrosive medium.

  • What is meant by D2 Material used for Die tooling?

 

D2 – High Carbon Cold Work Tool Steel

D2 is a high Carbon, high Chromium, Molybdenum, Vanadium, Air hardening alloy tool steel which offers good wear resistance, high surface hardness, through hardening properties, dimensional stability and high resistance to tempering effect. D2 tool steel is also suitable for vacuum hardening.

Typical Composition

C.-1.50%

Si.-0.30%

Cr. -12.00%

Mo. -0.80%

V. -0.90%

  • What is Vacuum Induction Melting?

As the name suggests, the process involves melting of a metal under vacuum conditions. Electromagnetic induction is used as the energy source for melting the metal.

Induction melting works by inducing electrical eddy currents in the metal. The source is the induction coil which carries an alternating current. The eddy currents heat and eventually melt the charge