Posted tagged ‘Measuring’

X RAY DIFFRACTION

August 23, 2011

It’s useful for studying Crystal structure

This method have the details about

    • Grain size (or) Crystal size
    • Orientation of the crystal
    • Cold worked, Distorted and Internally stressed crystals
    • Re-Crystallization
    • Preferred orientation etc

Methods of Examining and Measuring the condition of Crystal Structure

    1. The Laue back reflection method
    2. The Rotating Crystal method
    3. The DeBye- Scherrer (or) Powder method:

The Laue back Reflection method:

It’s applicable to single crystals (or) poly-Crystalline masses.

When a beam of Mono chromatic (i.e. of Single Wavelength) X-Ray is directed as a narrow pencil at a specimen of a metal diffraction takes place at certain of the crystallographic planes.


03-laue method- x-rays sheild

01-laue back reflection- method-X-ray-diffraction

01-electron-waves-travel-x-rays03-LaueBack reflection

02-lauemethod

The Rotating Crystal method:

It’s a useful method for determining angles and positions of planes.

Crystallographic planes are brought in to reflecting positions by rotating a crystal (Specimen) about one of it’s axis while simultaneously radially it with a beam of mono chromatic x-Rays.

If crystal orientation planes are known, the angles and directions can be calculated.

04-rotating-crytal-method-x-ray-diffration-crystal-structure

05-diffractometer-x ray detector-rotation crystal

The DeBye- Scherrer (or) Powder method:

The narrow pencil of monochromatic X-Rays is diffracted from the powder and recorded by the photographic film as a series of lines of varying armature.

By the Bragg Equation:

nλ=2d Sinθ

Where,

λ– Wave length of X-ray

d- Spacing of the atomic planes

θ – Angle of reflection

06-debye-scherrer-powder-method

 

 

 

 

 

07-debye-scherrer-powder-method

X RAY DIFFRACTION

August 23, 2011

It’s useful for studying Crystal structure

This method have the details about

    • Grain size (or) Crystal size
    • Orientation of the crystal
    • Cold worked, Distorted and Internally stressed crystals
    • Re-Crystallization
    • Preferred orientation etc

Methods of Examining and Measuring the condition of Crystal Structure

    1. The Laue back reflection method
    2. The Rotating Crystal method
    3. The DeBye- Scherrer (or) Powder method:

The Laue back Reflection method:

It’s applicable to single crystals (or) poly-Crystalline masses.

When a beam of Mono chromatic (i.e. of Single Wavelength) X-Ray is directed as a narrow pencil at a specimen of a metal diffraction takes place at certain of the crystallographic planes.


03-laue method- x-rays sheild

01-laue back reflection- method-X-ray-diffraction

01-electron-waves-travel-x-rays03-LaueBack reflection

02-lauemethod

The Rotating Crystal method:

It’s a useful method for determining angles and positions of planes.

Crystallographic planes are brought in to reflecting positions by rotating a crystal (Specimen) about one of it’s axis while simultaneously radially it with a beam of mono chromatic x-Rays.

If crystal orientation planes are known, the angles and directions can be calculated.

04-rotating-crytal-method-x-ray-diffration-crystal-structure

05-diffractometer-x ray detector-rotation crystal

The DeBye- Scherrer (or) Powder method:

The narrow pencil of monochromatic X-Rays is diffracted from the powder and recorded by the photographic film as a series of lines of varying armature.

By the Bragg Equation:

nλ=2d Sinθ

Where,

λ– Wave length of X-ray

d- Spacing of the atomic planes

θ – Angle of reflection

06-debye-scherrer-powder-method

 

 

 

 

 

07-debye-scherrer-powder-method

TERMS IN MEASUREMENT

August 23, 2011

MEASUREMENTS:

01-Imperial-Measurements-CONCEPTS OF MEASUREMENT-BASICS-OUTCOME OF A RESULT-EXAMPLES-MEASURING TAPES-LENGTH-HEIGHT

A Measurement is the outcome of an opinion formed by observers about some physical quantity.

CLASSIFICATION OF MEASUREMENTS:

  • Standards –  ( Reproduce the value of given quantity )
  • Fixed Gauges – (Check Dimensions)
  • Measuring Instruments – (Determine the measured value)

NEEDS FOR MEASUREMENT:

1. To Determine the true dimensions of a part.

2. To increase our knowledge and understanding of the world.

3. Needed for ensuring public health and human safety.

4. To convert physical parameters into meaningful numbers.

5. To test if the elements that constitute the system function as per the design.

6. For evaluating the performance of a system.

7. For studying some basic laws of nature.

8. To ensure interchangeability with a view to promoting mass production.

9. To evaluate the response of the system to particular point.

10. To check the limitations of theory in actual situations.

11. To establish the validity of design and for finding new data and new designs.

METHODS OF MEASUREMENT:

1. Direct Comparison

2. Indirect Comparison

3. Comparative Method

4. Coincidence Method

5. Fundamental Method

6. Contact Method

7. Transposition Method

8. Complementary Method

9. Deflection Method

Direct Method:

Measurements are directly obtained.

Ex:Vernier Caliper,Scales.

01-electroniccaliper-VERNIER CALIPER-DIGITAL VERNIER CALIPER-DIRECT MEASUREMENTS-ACCURATE-PRECISION MEASUREMENTS-CALIBRATED INSTRUMENTS

Indirect Method:

Obtained by measuring other quantities.

Ex:Diameter measurement by using three wires.

01-DIAMETER MEASUREMENTS-INDIRECT MEASUREMENTS-CAPACITIVE TRANSDUCER BY WHEATSTONE BRIDGE CIRCUITS

Comparative Method:

It’s compared with other known value.

Ex:Comparators.

01-comparator_stand_dial_gauge-precisional measurements-surface finish-height measurements-tolerance measurements

Coincidence Method:

Measurements coincide with certain lines and signals.

01-coincident methods-coincidence line-simplify lines-measurements lines and signals

Fundamental Method:

Measuring a quantity directly in related with the definition of that quantity.


Contact Method:

Sensor/Measuring tip touch the surface area.

Ex:Vernier Caliper.

01-proximity_sensor-distance measurements-long distance-measuring probe-sensing device

Transposition Method:


Quantity to be measured is first balanced by a known value and then balanced by an other new known value.

Ex:Determination of mass by balancing methods.

01-tool-balancing-balance methods-determination of mass-scale

Complementary Method:

01-volume-measurement-lighter-solids-volume displacement-liquid measure level-liquid displacement

The value of quantity to be measured is combined with known value of the same quantity.

Ex:Volume determination by liquid displacement.

Deflection Method:

The value to be measured is directly indicated by a deflection of pointer.

Ex:Pressure Measurement.

01-pressure measurement-pressure gauges-measurement of pressure-deflection of pointer

TERMS OF MEASUREMENT:

Precision:

The ability of the instrument to reproduce it’s readings or observation again and again for constant input signal.

Accuracy:

Closeness/conformity to the true value of the quantity under measurement.

01-Accuracy-Precision-uncertainity analysis-systematic errors-reproducibility errors

Error:

The difference between true value and measured value is known as measurement error.

Error = Vt – Vm

Reliability:

It is defined as the probability that a given system will perform it’s function adequately for it’s specified period of lifetime under specified operating conditions.

01-reliability-analysis-life time analysis-life time warranty

TERMS IN MEASUREMENT

August 23, 2011

MEASUREMENTS:

01-Imperial-Measurements-CONCEPTS OF MEASUREMENT-BASICS-OUTCOME OF A RESULT-EXAMPLES-MEASURING TAPES-LENGTH-HEIGHT

A Measurement is the outcome of an opinion formed by observers about some physical quantity.

CLASSIFICATION OF MEASUREMENTS:

  • Standards –  ( Reproduce the value of given quantity )
  • Fixed Gauges – (Check Dimensions)
  • Measuring Instruments – (Determine the measured value)

NEEDS FOR MEASUREMENT:

1. To Determine the true dimensions of a part.

2. To increase our knowledge and understanding of the world.

3. Needed for ensuring public health and human safety.

4. To convert physical parameters into meaningful numbers.

5. To test if the elements that constitute the system function as per the design.

6. For evaluating the performance of a system.

7. For studying some basic laws of nature.

8. To ensure interchangeability with a view to promoting mass production.

9. To evaluate the response of the system to particular point.

10. To check the limitations of theory in actual situations.

11. To establish the validity of design and for finding new data and new designs.

METHODS OF MEASUREMENT:

1. Direct Comparison

2. Indirect Comparison

3. Comparative Method

4. Coincidence Method

5. Fundamental Method

6. Contact Method

7. Transposition Method

8. Complementary Method

9. Deflection Method

Direct Method:

Measurements are directly obtained.

Ex:Vernier Caliper,Scales.

01-electroniccaliper-VERNIER CALIPER-DIGITAL VERNIER CALIPER-DIRECT MEASUREMENTS-ACCURATE-PRECISION MEASUREMENTS-CALIBRATED INSTRUMENTS

Indirect Method:

Obtained by measuring other quantities.

Ex:Diameter measurement by using three wires.

01-DIAMETER MEASUREMENTS-INDIRECT MEASUREMENTS-CAPACITIVE TRANSDUCER BY WHEATSTONE BRIDGE CIRCUITS

Comparative Method:

It’s compared with other known value.

Ex:Comparators.

01-comparator_stand_dial_gauge-precisional measurements-surface finish-height measurements-tolerance measurements

Coincidence Method:

Measurements coincide with certain lines and signals.

01-coincident methods-coincidence line-simplify lines-measurements lines and signals

Fundamental Method:

Measuring a quantity directly in related with the definition of that quantity.


Contact Method:

Sensor/Measuring tip touch the surface area.

Ex:Vernier Caliper.

01-proximity_sensor-distance measurements-long distance-measuring probe-sensing device

Transposition Method:


Quantity to be measured is first balanced by a known value and then balanced by an other new known value.

Ex:Determination of mass by balancing methods.

01-tool-balancing-balance methods-determination of mass-scale

Complementary Method:

01-volume-measurement-lighter-solids-volume displacement-liquid measure level-liquid displacement

The value of quantity to be measured is combined with known value of the same quantity.

Ex:Volume determination by liquid displacement.

Deflection Method:

The value to be measured is directly indicated by a deflection of pointer.

Ex:Pressure Measurement.

01-pressure measurement-pressure gauges-measurement of pressure-deflection of pointer

TERMS OF MEASUREMENT:

Precision:

The ability of the instrument to reproduce it’s readings or observation again and again for constant input signal.

Accuracy:

Closeness/conformity to the true value of the quantity under measurement.

01-Accuracy-Precision-uncertainity analysis-systematic errors-reproducibility errors

Error:

The difference between true value and measured value is known as measurement error.

Error = Vt – Vm

Reliability:

It is defined as the probability that a given system will perform it’s function adequately for it’s specified period of lifetime under specified operating conditions.

01-reliability-analysis-life time analysis-life time warranty