Posted tagged ‘nbsp’


September 16, 2011

It is defined as the probability that a given system will perform it’s function adequately for it’s specified period of lifetime under specified operating conditions.

01-reliability-analysis-life time analysis-life time warranty

Common measures are :

1. Failure rate.

2. Mean time between failures(MTBF)

3. Survival percentage.

Failure Rate:

01-the bathtub curve-failure rate vs time - Reliability test-failure analysis-calculate life time of a product

Rate which components of population fail.



Ns(t)- No. of components that survived during time ’t’

Nf(t) – No. of failures that occurred during the same time.

01-web- failure analysis-unexpected failure-operational fracture-failure rate

01-preheater-tube-failure-failure rate-circumferential cracking-probability of failure

Mean time between Failures(MTBF):

01-mtbf-mean time between failures-measurement of reliability-repairable items

The reciprocal of the failure rate(1/λ).


λ —-Failure rate.

Failure rate = (No.of failure )/(Time period during all components were exposed to failure)


Reliability Analysis:

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis(FMEA)

01-FMEA-failure mode and effect analysis-effective analysis-risk priority number-severity number-probability number-reliability analysis

Purpose :

1. To recommend design changes.

2. To identify design weakness.

3. To help in choosing alternatives.

01-space-shuttle-failure mode-effects-criticality analysis-fmea-reliability test

Four Stages:

Ist Stage – System boundaries and the scope of the analysis is decided.

IInd Stage – Data Collection

Ex: Specification,Operating Procedure,Working Conditions.

IIIrd Stage– Preparing the component or parts list.

IVth Stage – Failure frequency and the functions of the part identified,causes of       failures,Failure detection.




01-Bathtub-life span of product-annual failure-mtbf prediction-mathematical model of reliability-improving quality

Gear Tooth Analysis (Bending)

September 13, 2011


September 8, 2011
  2. ENGG ECO 1
  3. ENGG ECO 2
  4. ENGG ECO 3
  5. ENGG ECO 4



Design of Screw Conveyor

September 8, 2011

01-screw conveyor-screw conveyor design-screw conveyor design calculations-screw conveyor housing- screw conveyor flights- screw conveyor formulae- screw conveyor flow rates

The size of screw conveyor depends on two factors

1. The capacity of the conveyor

2. The lump size of the material to be conveyed (Maximum dimensions of the particle)

Usually there are three ranges of lump sizes which are considered for selection of screw size. These are:

· A mixture of lumps and fines in which not more than 10% are lumps ranging from maximum size to one half of the maximum, and 90% are lumps smaller than one half of the maximum size.

· A mixture of lump and fines in which not more than 25% are lumps ranging from the maximum size to one half of the maximum, and 75% are lumps smaller than one half of the maximum size.

· A mixture of lump only in which 95% or more are lumps ranging from maximum size to one half of the maximum size and 5% or less are lumps less than one tenth of the maximum size.

The allowable size of a lump in a screw conveyor is a function of the radial clearance between the outside diameter of the central pipe and the radius of the inside of the screw trough, as well as the proportion of the lumps in the mixture.

The lump size of the material affects the selection of screw diameter which should be at least 12 times larger than the lump size of a sized material and four times larger than the largest lumps of an un-sized material.

Example, if screw diameter is 250mm means radial clearance is 105mm, & Maximum lump size is 60mm of 10% lumps.

Capacity of Screw Conveyor:

01-screw conveyor capacity calculation-screw conveyor manufacturers-screw conveyor shaft- screw conveyor capacity- screw conveyor components- screw conveyor bearings


The capacity of a screw conveyor depends on the screw diameter, screw pitch, speed of the screw and the loading efficiency of the cross sectional area of the screw. The capacity of a screw conveyor with a continuous screw:

Q = V. ρ

Q = 60. (π/4).D2.S.n.ψ.ρ.C


Q = capacity of a screw conveyor

V = Volumetric capacity in m3/Hr

ρ = Bulk density of the material, kg/m3

D = Nominal diameter of Screw in m

S = Screw pitch in m

N = RPM of screw

Ψ = Loading efficiency of the screw

C = Factor to take into account the inclination of the conveyor


Screw Pitch:

Commonly the screw pitch is taken equal to the diameter of the screw D. However it may range 0.75 – 1.0 times the diameter of the screw.





01-screw conveyor pitch- screw conveyor inlet- screw conveyor output- screw conveyor blade- screw conveyor motor

Screw Diameter:


Nominal Size D Trough height from center of screw shaft to upper edge of the trough Trough width C Thickness of Tough Tubular shaft (d1 * Thickness)

Outside diameter of solid shaft

Coupling diameter of shaft
Heavy Duty Medium Duty Light Duty
100 63 120 2 1.6 33.7*2.5 30 25
125 75 145 2 1.6 33.7*2.5 30 25
160 90 180 5 3.15 1.6 42.4*2.5 35 40
200 112 220 5 3.15 2 48.3*3.5 40 40
250 140 270 5 3.15 2 60.3*4 50 50
315 180 335 5 3.15 76.1*5 60 50
400 224 420 5 3.15 76.1*5 60 75
500 280 530 5 3.15 88.9*5 70 75

RPM of Screw:

The usual range of RPM of screw is 10 to 165. It depends on the diameter of screw and the type of material (Max RPM of screw conveyor is 165)

Loading efficiency:

The value of loading efficiency should be taken large for materials which are free flowing and non abrasive, while for materials which are not free flowing and or abrasive in nature, the value should be taken low:

Ψ = 0.12 to 0.15 for abrasive material

= 0.25 to 0.3 for mildly abrasive material

= 0.4 to 0.45 for non abrasive free flowing materials

Inclination Factor:

The inclination factor C is determined by the angle of screw conveyor with the horizontal.


Angle of screw with the horizontal 10° 15° 20°
Value of factor C 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.65

Types of screw flight:

The screw of the conveyor may be right hand or left hand, the right hand type being the usual design. The threads of the screw may be single, double or triple.

The flight of the screws may be made in either of the two ways:

1. As Helicoids

2. As Sectional flight

Helicoids Flight:

They are formed from a flat bar or strip into a continues helix. The threads are thinner at the outer edge and thicker at the inner edge.

01-screw conveyor types- screw conveyor trough- screw conveyor theory- screw conveyor thrust bearings- screw conveyor torque-helicoid flights-continues helix-flight of screws

Sectional flights:

Sectional flights are formed from a flat disc and the thickness of the thread is uniform throughout. A continuous helix is made by joining a number of sectional flights together on a piece of pipe and butt welded them. Various styles of screw flights are in use, depending on the service required.

01- screw conveyor technology- screw conveyor incline- screw conveyor introduction- screw conveyor inlet- screw conveyor information- screw conveyor output-sectional flights-continuous helix-short pitch

Some of the typical configurations are:

1. Short pitch or continuous flight:

If the conveyor is required to handle dry granular or powdered materials that do not pack, this style of flight may be selected. It is of regular construction and recommended for inclined conveyors having a slope of 20 or more, including vertical conveyors. This style is extensively used as feeder screw.

2. Ribbon flight:

If the conveyor is to handle lumpy, clinging, sticky, gummy or viscous substances, this type flight may be selected. It consists of continuous helical flight formed from steel bar and secured to the pipe by supporting lugs.

01-screw conveyor part- screw conveyor pitch- screw conveyor power- screw conveyor length- screw conveyor layout- screw conveyor lift- screw conveyor loading-ribbon flight-cut flight

3. Cut flight:

In this type of flight screws have notches cut in the periphery of the flight. These notches supplement the conveying with moderate mixing action. They are recommended for conveyors required to handle light, fine, granular or flaky materials.

01-screw conveyor length- screw conveyor layout- screw conveyor lift- screw conveyor loading-cut flight-screw flight-sectional flight

4. Cut and folded flights:

This type of flight is characterized by notches as in cut flight, together with folded segments. This type of flight creates agitation and aeration resulting in better mixing. This type of flight is used to handle light or medium weight materials having fine, granular or flaky materials.

5. Some screw conveyors have cut flight with paddles mounted at regular intervals. The paddles counteract the flow of material past the flight resulting in greater agitation and mixing.

6. Sometimes screws are made of stainless steel to suit special requirements, like the sanitation requirements for handling food, drugs and other hygienic materials.