Posted tagged ‘reduction’

METALLURGY

August 23, 2011

Definition:

The Process of producing components from metallic powder parts made by powder metallurgy may contain non-metallic constituents to improve the bonding qualities and properties.

Number and variety of products made by powder metallurgy are continuously increasing:

    1. Tungsten Filaments for Lamps
    2. Contact Point relays
    3. Self lubricating bearings
    4. Cemented carbides for cutting tools etc.

02-PowderManufacturing-metallurgy-particles

 

Characters of Metal Powders:

  • Shape:

It is influenced by the way it’s made. The shape may be spherical (atomization) (Electrolysis) flat or angular (Mechanical crushing). The particle shape influences the flow characteristics of powders.

  • Particle Size (Fineness) and size distribution:

Particle Size and Distribution are important factors which controls the porosity, Compressibility and amount of shrinkage. Proper particle size and size distribution are determined by passing the powder through a standard sieves ranging from 45 to 150 micrometer mesh.

  • Flowability:

The ability of the powders to flow readily and conform to the mould cavity. The flow rate helps to determine to possible production rate.

  • Compressibility:

It’s defines as the volume of initial powder (Powder loosely filled in cavity) to the volume of compact part. Depends on particle shape & size distribution.

  • Apparent Density:

The Apparent density depends on particle size is defined as the ratio of volume to weight of loosely filled mixture.

  • Green strength:

It refer to strength of a compact part prior to sintering. It depends on compressibility and helps to handle the parts during the mass production.

  • Purity:

Impurities affects sintering & Compacting Oxides & Gaseous impurities can be removed from the part during sintering by the use of a reducing atmosphere.

  • Sintering ability:

It is the ability which promotes bonding of particles by the application of heat.

 

Powder Metallurgy Process steps:

 

01-powder-metallurgy-process-step by step


 

01-powder metallurgy processes-mixing-finished product

 

02-finished product 

Manufacture of Metal Powders:

Methods:

  • Mechanical pulverization:

Machining, Drilling or Grinding of metals is used to convert them to powders.

  • Machining:

It Produces coarse particles (Flack form) especially Magnesium powders.

  • Milling or Grinding:

It suitable for brittle materials.

  • Shorting:

The process of dropping molten metal through a Sieve or small orifice in to water. This produces Spherical particles or larger size. Commonly used for metals of low melting point.

03-mechanical pulverization-milling-powder

04-crushing-shredding-conveyors-powder

 

  • Atomizing:

In this molten metal is forced through a nozzle, and a stream of compressed air, stream or Inert gas is directed on it break up into five particles. Powders obtained in irregular in shapes. Atomization commonly used for aluminium, Zinc, Tin, Cadmium and other metals of low melting point.

03-atomization-powder metallurgy

 

  • Electrolytic deposition:

It’s used mainly for producing iron and copper powders. These are dense structure with low apparent density. It consists of depositing metal on cathode plate by conventional electrolysis processes. The Cathode paltes are removed and the deposited powder is scraped off. The powder is wasted, dried, screened & oversized particles are milled or ground for fineness. The powder is further subjected to heat treatment to remove the work hardening effect.

  • Chemical reduction:

It’s used for producing iron, Copper, Tungsten, Molybdenum, Nickel & Cobalt powder process consists of reducing the metal oxides by means of carbon monoxide or Hydrogen. After reduction, the powder is usually ground & Sized.

 

Forming to shape:

    1. The process of mixing the powders is called Blending.
    2. The Loose powders are formed in to shape by compacting.

METALLURGY

August 23, 2011

Definition:

The Process of producing components from metallic powder parts made by powder metallurgy may contain non-metallic constituents to improve the bonding qualities and properties.

Number and variety of products made by powder metallurgy are continuously increasing:

    1. Tungsten Filaments for Lamps
    2. Contact Point relays
    3. Self lubricating bearings
    4. Cemented carbides for cutting tools etc.

02-PowderManufacturing-metallurgy-particles

 

Characters of Metal Powders:

  • Shape:

It is influenced by the way it’s made. The shape may be spherical (atomization) (Electrolysis) flat or angular (Mechanical crushing). The particle shape influences the flow characteristics of powders.

  • Particle Size (Fineness) and size distribution:

Particle Size and Distribution are important factors which controls the porosity, Compressibility and amount of shrinkage. Proper particle size and size distribution are determined by passing the powder through a standard sieves ranging from 45 to 150 micrometer mesh.

  • Flowability:

The ability of the powders to flow readily and conform to the mould cavity. The flow rate helps to determine to possible production rate.

  • Compressibility:

It’s defines as the volume of initial powder (Powder loosely filled in cavity) to the volume of compact part. Depends on particle shape & size distribution.

  • Apparent Density:

The Apparent density depends on particle size is defined as the ratio of volume to weight of loosely filled mixture.

  • Green strength:

It refer to strength of a compact part prior to sintering. It depends on compressibility and helps to handle the parts during the mass production.

  • Purity:

Impurities affects sintering & Compacting Oxides & Gaseous impurities can be removed from the part during sintering by the use of a reducing atmosphere.

  • Sintering ability:

It is the ability which promotes bonding of particles by the application of heat.

 

Powder Metallurgy Process steps:

 

01-powder-metallurgy-process-step by step


 

01-powder metallurgy processes-mixing-finished product

 

02-finished product 

Manufacture of Metal Powders:

Methods:

  • Mechanical pulverization:

Machining, Drilling or Grinding of metals is used to convert them to powders.

  • Machining:

It Produces coarse particles (Flack form) especially Magnesium powders.

  • Milling or Grinding:

It suitable for brittle materials.

  • Shorting:

The process of dropping molten metal through a Sieve or small orifice in to water. This produces Spherical particles or larger size. Commonly used for metals of low melting point.

03-mechanical pulverization-milling-powder

04-crushing-shredding-conveyors-powder

 

  • Atomizing:

In this molten metal is forced through a nozzle, and a stream of compressed air, stream or Inert gas is directed on it break up into five particles. Powders obtained in irregular in shapes. Atomization commonly used for aluminium, Zinc, Tin, Cadmium and other metals of low melting point.

03-atomization-powder metallurgy

 

  • Electrolytic deposition:

It’s used mainly for producing iron and copper powders. These are dense structure with low apparent density. It consists of depositing metal on cathode plate by conventional electrolysis processes. The Cathode paltes are removed and the deposited powder is scraped off. The powder is wasted, dried, screened & oversized particles are milled or ground for fineness. The powder is further subjected to heat treatment to remove the work hardening effect.

  • Chemical reduction:

It’s used for producing iron, Copper, Tungsten, Molybdenum, Nickel & Cobalt powder process consists of reducing the metal oxides by means of carbon monoxide or Hydrogen. After reduction, the powder is usually ground & Sized.

 

Forming to shape:

    1. The process of mixing the powders is called Blending.
    2. The Loose powders are formed in to shape by compacting.

3D SIMULATION

August 23, 2011

01-design challenges in the automotive sector-product design-surface design-new product development-FEA solutions-concept design

Design Validation:

  • Accelerate new product development
  • Switch to alternate or cheaper material
  • Reduce Prototyping costs
  • Improve product quality and performance
  • Enhance reliability

01-design validation need-Solidworks COSMOS design validation-engineering design challenges


Responding To Design Challenges:

  • Improve complex product designs
    • Enhanced function and performance
    • Meet product specification and / or regulation

01-life cycle simulation-CAE-multi body dynamics-flexible body-Product life cycle management-PLM software-Solidworks-COSMOS-design optimization-FE modeling

  • Reduce Re-Design
    • Design right first time
    • Weight and shape optimization
  • Early problem detection and correction
    • Avoid field failures
    • Study alternative designs
  • Greater product quality
    • Efficient and reliable
    • Reduced liability

CAE Solutions:

01-validate design with FEA-Finite Element Analysis-Design optimization-verify design function and intent-FEM

  • Development of indigenous technologies and products
  • Enumeration of methods for Analysis to test correlations
  • Procedure for Failure mode and Prediction and Life Calculations
  • Value Addition and Value Engineering (VAVE)
  • Reduction in Cost and Product development time
  • Elimination of Performance problems
  • Improvement in performance efficiency

COSMOS Salient Features:

01-design validation software-Solidworks-cosmos simulation-FEA Analysis-Stress Analysis-Finite Element Analysis-Simplify Design analysis

  • Theory in Finite Element Analysis including procedure for performing FEA
  • Practical solution to complex problems involving multi-domain interaction
  • Correlation to real world problems and phenomena
  • Advanced training on Fatigue, Non-Linear FEA and Vibrations

Why COSMOS for Design Validation:

01-solidworks-cosmos-design star-solidworks simulation-cosmos fea-cosmosworks-cosmos design validation

  • CAD Integrated Design validation
  • Easy to use and Shorter Learning Curve
  • Evaluate multiple Design scenarios in one stroke
  • Integrated Kinematic Analysis using Cosmos Motion
  • Seamless transfer of loading from COSMOS Motion to COSMOS  Works for FEA
  • Multi Domain Analysis in Integrated CAD Environment

SolidWorks / COSMOS Simulation benefits:

  • Easy-to-Use Simulation toolset – Enables designers to concentrate on designs not tools
  • Automatic Report Generation
  • Multiple configurations of designs can be studied automatically – enables Design of Experiments
  • Unlimited Model size – limited only by Computational resources
  • True Contact simulation for accurate load transfer
  • Sensors and Probes to compare results with Real-World Test Data
  • Fast, Accurate and Reliable – Backed by almost 3 Decades of experience

3D SIMULATION

August 23, 2011

01-design challenges in the automotive sector-product design-surface design-new product development-FEA solutions-concept design

Design Validation:

  • Accelerate new product development
  • Switch to alternate or cheaper material
  • Reduce Prototyping costs
  • Improve product quality and performance
  • Enhance reliability

01-design validation need-Solidworks COSMOS design validation-engineering design challenges


Responding To Design Challenges:

  • Improve complex product designs
    • Enhanced function and performance
    • Meet product specification and / or regulation

01-life cycle simulation-CAE-multi body dynamics-flexible body-Product life cycle management-PLM software-Solidworks-COSMOS-design optimization-FE modeling

  • Reduce Re-Design
    • Design right first time
    • Weight and shape optimization
  • Early problem detection and correction
    • Avoid field failures
    • Study alternative designs
  • Greater product quality
    • Efficient and reliable
    • Reduced liability

CAE Solutions:

01-validate design with FEA-Finite Element Analysis-Design optimization-verify design function and intent-FEM

  • Development of indigenous technologies and products
  • Enumeration of methods for Analysis to test correlations
  • Procedure for Failure mode and Prediction and Life Calculations
  • Value Addition and Value Engineering (VAVE)
  • Reduction in Cost and Product development time
  • Elimination of Performance problems
  • Improvement in performance efficiency

COSMOS Salient Features:

01-design validation software-Solidworks-cosmos simulation-FEA Analysis-Stress Analysis-Finite Element Analysis-Simplify Design analysis

  • Theory in Finite Element Analysis including procedure for performing FEA
  • Practical solution to complex problems involving multi-domain interaction
  • Correlation to real world problems and phenomena
  • Advanced training on Fatigue, Non-Linear FEA and Vibrations

Why COSMOS for Design Validation:

01-solidworks-cosmos-design star-solidworks simulation-cosmos fea-cosmosworks-cosmos design validation

  • CAD Integrated Design validation
  • Easy to use and Shorter Learning Curve
  • Evaluate multiple Design scenarios in one stroke
  • Integrated Kinematic Analysis using Cosmos Motion
  • Seamless transfer of loading from COSMOS Motion to COSMOS  Works for FEA
  • Multi Domain Analysis in Integrated CAD Environment

SolidWorks / COSMOS Simulation benefits:

  • Easy-to-Use Simulation toolset – Enables designers to concentrate on designs not tools
  • Automatic Report Generation
  • Multiple configurations of designs can be studied automatically – enables Design of Experiments
  • Unlimited Model size – limited only by Computational resources
  • True Contact simulation for accurate load transfer
  • Sensors and Probes to compare results with Real-World Test Data
  • Fast, Accurate and Reliable – Backed by almost 3 Decades of experience

SKYACTIV TECHNOLOGY

August 23, 2011

01-2012-Mazda3-Skyactiv-Image-PETROL ENGINE-AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

Highlights of the SKYACTIV technologies:

  • SKYACTIV-G: a next-generation highly-efficient direct-injection gasoline engine with the world’s highest compression ratio of 14.0:1
  • SKYACTIV-D: a next-generation clean diesel engine with the world’s lowest compression ratio of 14.0:1
  • SKYACTIV-Drive: a next-generation highly-efficient automatic transmission
  • A next-generation manual transmission with a light shift feel, compact size and significantly reduced weight
  • A next-generation lightweight, highly-rigid body with outstanding crash safety performance
  • A next-generation high-performance lightweight chassis that balances precise handling with a comfortable ride


– First product to be equipped with SKYACTIV technology will be a Mazda Demio featuring an improved, fuel-efficient, next-generation direct-injection engine that achieves fuel economy of 30 km/L.

01-inline-skyactiv-technologies-chASSIS DESIGN-BODY DESIGN-DRIVE DESIGN-DIRECT INJECTION GASOLINE ENGINE


Overview of the SKYACTIV technologies

1. SKYACTIV-G
A next-generation highly-efficient direct-injection gasoline engine that achieves the world’s highest gasoline engine compression ratio of 14.0:1 with no abnormal combustion (knocking)
  • The world’s first gasoline engine for mass production vehicles to achieve a high compression ratio of 14.0:1
  • Significantly improved engine efficiency thanks to the high compression combustion, resulting in 15 percent increases in fuel efficiency and torque
  • Improved everyday driving thanks to increased torque at low- to mid-engine speeds
  • A 4-2-1 exhaust system, cavity pistons, multi hole injectors and other innovations enable the high compression ratio
2. SKYACTIV-D
A next-generation clean diesel engine that will meet global emissions regulations without expensive NOx after treatments — urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) — thanks to the world’s lowest diesel engine compression ratio of 14.0:1
  • 20 percent better fuel efficiency thanks to the low compression ratio of 14.0:1
  • A new two-stage turbocharger realizes smooth and linear response from low to high engine speeds, and greatly increases low- and high-end torque (up to the 5,200 rpm rev limit)
  • Complies with global emissions regulations (Euro6 in Europe, Tier2Bin5 in North America, and the Post New Long-Term Regulations in Japan), without expensive NOx after treatment
3. SKYACTIV-Drive
A next-generation highly efficient automatic transmission that achieves excellent torque transfer efficiency through a wider lock-up range and features the best attributes of all transmission types
  • Combines all the advantages of conventional automatic transmissions, continuously variable transmissions, and dual clutch transmissions
  • A dramatically widened lock-up range improves torque transfer efficiency and realizes a direct driving feel that is equivalent to a manual transmission
  • A 4-to-7 percent improvement in fuel economy compared to the current transmission
4. SKYACTIV-MT
A light and compact next-generation manual transmission with crisp and light shift feel like that of a sports car, optimized for a front-engine front-wheel-drive layout
  • Short stroke and light shift feel
  • Significantly reduced size and weight due to a revised structure
  • More efficient vehicle packaging thanks to its compact size
  • Improved fuel economy due to reduced internal friction
5. SKYACTIV-Body
A next-generation lightweight, highly-rigid body with outstanding crash safety performance and high rigidity for greater driving pleasure
  • High rigidity and lightness (8 percent lighter, 30 percent more rigid)
  • Outstanding crash safety performance and lightness
  • A “straight structure” in which each part of the frame is configured to be as straight as possible. Additionally, a “continuous framework” approach was adopted in which each section functions in a coordinated manner with the other connecting sections
  • Reduced weight through optimized bonding methods and expanded use of high-tensile steel
6. SKYACTIV-Chassis
A next-generation high-performance lightweight chassis that balances precise handling with a comfortable ride feel to realize driving pleasure
  • Newly developed front strut and rear multilink suspension ensures high rigidity and lightness (The entire chassis is 14 percent lighter than the previous version.)
  • Mid-speed agility and high-speed stability — enhanced ride quality at all speeds achieved through a revision of the functional allocation of all the suspension and steering components