## Posted tagged ‘redundancy’

### Palindromes

August 24, 2011

Problem: this year on October 2, 2001, the date in MMDDYYYY format will be a palindrome (same forwards as backwards).
10/02/2001
when was the last date that this occurred on? (see if you can do it in your head!)

### Solution:we know the year has to be less than 2001 since we already have the palindrome for 10/02. it can’t be any year in 1900 because that would result in a day of 91. same for 1800 down to 1400. it could be a year in 1300 because that would be the 31st day. so whats the latest year in 1300 that would make a month? at first i thought it would be 1321, since that would give us the 12th month, but we have to remember that we want the maximum YEAR in the 1300 century with a valid month, which would actually be 1390, since 09/31 is a valid date.

but of course, a question like this wouldn’t be complete without anaha factor. and of course, there are not 31 days in september, only 30. so we have to go back to august 08 which means the correct date would be 08/31/1380.

palindromes also offer another great string question.
write a function that tests for palindromes
`bool isPalindrome( char* pStr )`

if you start a pointer at the beginning and the end of the string and keep comparing characters while moving the pointers closer together, you can test if the string is the same forwards and backwards. notice that the pointers only have to travel to the middle, not all the way to the other end (to reduce redundancy).

```bool isPalindrome( char* pStr )
{
if ( pStr == NULL )
return false;

char* pEnd = pStr;
while ( *pEnd != '' )
pEnd++;

pEnd--;

while(pEnd > pStr)
{
if ( *pEnd != *pStr )
return false;

pEnd--;
pStr++;
}

return true;
}```

### FMEA

August 23, 2011

Failure Mode – A particular way in which an item fails, independent of the reason for failure.

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) – A procedure by which each credible failure mode of each item from a low indenture level to the highest is analyzed to determine the effects on the system and to classify each potential failure mode in accordance with the severity of its effect.

Indenture Levels – The hierarchy of hardware levels from the part to the component to the subsystem to the system, etc.

Redundancy – More than one independent means of performing a function.  There are different kinds of redundancy, including:
(1) Operational – Redundant items, all of which are energized during the operating cycle; includes load-sharing, wherein redundant items are connected in a manner such that upon failure of one item, the other will continue to perform the function.  It is not necessary to switch out the failed item or switch in the redundant one.

(2) Standby – Items that are inoperative (have no power applied) until they are switched in upon failure of the primary item.

(3) Like Redundancy – Identical items performing the same function.

(4) Unlike Redundancy – Non identical items performing the same function

THE FMEA PROCESS

• Define the system to be analyzed.  A complete system definition includes identification of internal and interface functions, expected performance at all indenture levels, system restraints, and failure definitions.  Also state systems and mission phases not analyzed giving rationale for the omissions.

• Indicate the depth of the analysis by identifying the indenture level at which the analysis is begun.

• Identify specific design requirements that are to be verified by the FMEA.

• Define ground rules and assumptions on which the analysis is based.  Identify mission phases to be analyzed and the status of equipment during each mission phase.

• Obtain or construct functional and reliability block diagrams indicating interrelationships of functional groups, system operation, independent data channels, and backup or workaround features of the system.

• Identify failure modes, effects, failure detection and workaround features and other pertinent information on the worksheet.

• Evaluate the severity of each failure effect in accordance with the prescribed severity categories.

FMEA Flow Diagram:

History:

The FMECA was originally developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve and verify the reliability of space program hardware.

FMECA Flow Diagram: ( Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis )

Criticality Analysis Flow:

##### Who is the Team ?

Areas to be represented are:

• Quality
• Logistics
• Engineering