## Posted tagged ‘Sensitivity’

### MEASUREMENT

August 23, 2011

Calibration:

If a known input is given to the measurement system the output deviates from the given input, the corrections are made in the instrument and then the output is measured. This process is called “Calibration”.

Sensitivity:

Sensitivity is the ratio of change in the output signal to the change in the input signal.

Refers to the ease with which the readings of a measuring instrument can be read.

True size:

Theoretical size of a dimension which is free from errors.

Actual size:

Size obtained through measurement with permissible error.

Hysteresis:

All the energy put into the stressed component when loaded is not recovered upon unloading. so the output of measurement partially depends on input called Hysteresis.

Range:

The physical variables that are measured between two values. One is the higher calibration value Hc and the other is Lower value Lc.

Span:

The algebraic difference between higher calibration values to lower calibration values.

Resolution:

The minimum value of the input signal is required to cause an appreciable change in the output known as resolution.

It is the largest change in the physical variable to which the measuring instrument does not respond.

Threshold:

The minimum value of input signal that is required to make a change or start from zero.

Backlash:

The maximum distance through which one part of the instrument is moved without disturbing the other part.

Response Time:

The time at which the instrument begins its response for a change in the measured quantity.

Repeatability:

The ability of the measuring instrument to repeat the same results during the act measurements for the same quantity is known as repeatability.

Bias:

It is a characteristic of a measure or measuring instruments to give indications of the value of a measured quantity for which the average value differs from true value.

Magnification:

It means the magnitude of output signal of measuring instrument many times increases to make it more readable.

Drift:

If an instrument does not reproduce the same reading at different times of measurement for the same input signal, it is said to be measurement drift.

Reproducibility:

It is the consistency of pattern of variation in measurement. When individual measurements are carried out the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same quantity.

Uncertainty:

The range about the measured value within the true value of the measured quantity is likely to lie at the stated level of confidence.

Traceability:

It is nothing establishing a calibration by step by step comparison with better standards.

Parallax:

An apparent change in the position of the index relative is to the scale marks.

### MEASUREMENT

August 23, 2011

Calibration:

If a known input is given to the measurement system the output deviates from the given input, the corrections are made in the instrument and then the output is measured. This process is called “Calibration”.

Sensitivity:

Sensitivity is the ratio of change in the output signal to the change in the input signal.

Refers to the ease with which the readings of a measuring instrument can be read.

True size:

Theoretical size of a dimension which is free from errors.

Actual size:

Size obtained through measurement with permissible error.

Hysteresis:

All the energy put into the stressed component when loaded is not recovered upon unloading. so the output of measurement partially depends on input called Hysteresis.

Range:

The physical variables that are measured between two values. One is the higher calibration value Hc and the other is Lower value Lc.

Span:

The algebraic difference between higher calibration values to lower calibration values.

Resolution:

The minimum value of the input signal is required to cause an appreciable change in the output known as resolution.

It is the largest change in the physical variable to which the measuring instrument does not respond.

Threshold:

The minimum value of input signal that is required to make a change or start from zero.

Backlash:

The maximum distance through which one part of the instrument is moved without disturbing the other part.

Response Time:

The time at which the instrument begins its response for a change in the measured quantity.

Repeatability:

The ability of the measuring instrument to repeat the same results during the act measurements for the same quantity is known as repeatability.

Bias:

It is a characteristic of a measure or measuring instruments to give indications of the value of a measured quantity for which the average value differs from true value.

Magnification:

It means the magnitude of output signal of measuring instrument many times increases to make it more readable.

Drift:

If an instrument does not reproduce the same reading at different times of measurement for the same input signal, it is said to be measurement drift.

Reproducibility:

It is the consistency of pattern of variation in measurement. When individual measurements are carried out the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same quantity.

Uncertainty:

The range about the measured value within the true value of the measured quantity is likely to lie at the stated level of confidence.

Traceability:

It is nothing establishing a calibration by step by step comparison with better standards.

Parallax:

An apparent change in the position of the index relative is to the scale marks.

### PEM FUEL CELLS

August 23, 2011

Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells—also called proton exchange membrane fuel cells—deliver high-power density and offer the advantages of low weight and volume, compared with other fuel cells. PEM fuel cells use a solid polymer as an electrolyte and porous carbon electrodes containing a platinum catalyst. They need only hydrogen, oxygen from the air, and water to operate and do not require corrosive fluids like some fuel cells. They are typically fueled with pure hydrogen supplied from storage tanks or on-board reformers.

PEM Technology:

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells operate at relatively low temperatures, around 80°C (176°F). Low-temperature operation allows them to start quickly (less warm-up time) and results in less wear on system components, resulting in better durability. However, it requires that a noble-metal catalyst (typically platinum) be used to separate the hydrogen’s electrons and protons, adding to system cost. The platinum catalyst is also extremely sensitive to CO poisoning, making it necessary to employ an additional reactor to reduce CO in the fuel gas if the hydrogen is derived from an alcohol or hydrocarbon fuel. This also adds cost. Developers are currently exploring platinum/ruthenium catalysts that are more resistant to CO.

PEM Fuel Cell Applications:

PEM fuel cells are used primarily for transportation applications and some stationary applications. Due to their fast startup time, low sensitivity to orientation, and favorable power-to-weight ratio, PEM fuel cells are particularly suitable for use in passenger vehicles, such as cars and buses.