## Posted tagged ‘Single’

### X RAY DIFFRACTION

August 23, 2011

It’s useful for studying Crystal structure

This method have the details about

• Grain size (or) Crystal size
• Orientation of the crystal
• Cold worked, Distorted and Internally stressed crystals
• Re-Crystallization
• Preferred orientation etc

Methods of Examining and Measuring the condition of Crystal Structure

1. The Laue back reflection method
2. The Rotating Crystal method
3. The DeBye- Scherrer (or) Powder method:

The Laue back Reflection method:

It’s applicable to single crystals (or) poly-Crystalline masses.

When a beam of Mono chromatic (i.e. of Single Wavelength) X-Ray is directed as a narrow pencil at a specimen of a metal diffraction takes place at certain of the crystallographic planes.

The Rotating Crystal method:

It’s a useful method for determining angles and positions of planes.

Crystallographic planes are brought in to reflecting positions by rotating a crystal (Specimen) about one of it’s axis while simultaneously radially it with a beam of mono chromatic x-Rays.

If crystal orientation planes are known, the angles and directions can be calculated.

The DeBye- Scherrer (or) Powder method:

The narrow pencil of monochromatic X-Rays is diffracted from the powder and recorded by the photographic film as a series of lines of varying armature.

By the Bragg Equation:

nλ=2d Sinθ

Where,

λ– Wave length of X-ray

d- Spacing of the atomic planes

θ – Angle of reflection

### X RAY DIFFRACTION

August 23, 2011

It’s useful for studying Crystal structure

This method have the details about

• Grain size (or) Crystal size
• Orientation of the crystal
• Cold worked, Distorted and Internally stressed crystals
• Re-Crystallization
• Preferred orientation etc

Methods of Examining and Measuring the condition of Crystal Structure

1. The Laue back reflection method
2. The Rotating Crystal method
3. The DeBye- Scherrer (or) Powder method:

The Laue back Reflection method:

It’s applicable to single crystals (or) poly-Crystalline masses.

When a beam of Mono chromatic (i.e. of Single Wavelength) X-Ray is directed as a narrow pencil at a specimen of a metal diffraction takes place at certain of the crystallographic planes.

The Rotating Crystal method:

It’s a useful method for determining angles and positions of planes.

Crystallographic planes are brought in to reflecting positions by rotating a crystal (Specimen) about one of it’s axis while simultaneously radially it with a beam of mono chromatic x-Rays.

If crystal orientation planes are known, the angles and directions can be calculated.

The DeBye- Scherrer (or) Powder method:

The narrow pencil of monochromatic X-Rays is diffracted from the powder and recorded by the photographic film as a series of lines of varying armature.

By the Bragg Equation:

nλ=2d Sinθ

Where,

λ– Wave length of X-ray

d- Spacing of the atomic planes

θ – Angle of reflection

### BELT DRIVES

August 23, 2011

Types and Selection of Drives:

• Single Unsnubbed Bare / Lagged pulley Drive
• Snubbed Bare / Lagged Pulley Drive
• Tandem Drive
• Special Drives

Single Unsnubbed Bare / Lagged Pulley Drive:

This is the simplest drive arrangement consisting of a steel pulley connected to a motor and the belt wrapped round it on an arc of 180°. This can be used for low capacity short center conveyors handling non-abrasive material. The pulley may be lagged to increase the coefficient of friction.

Snubbed Bare / Lagged Pulley Drive:

Here the angle of wrap is increased from 180° to 210° or even up to 230°, by providing a snub pulley to the driving pulley. In majority of medium to large capacity belt conveyors, handling mild abrasive to fairly abrasive materials, 210° snub pulley drive with load pulley lagged with hard rubber is adopted.

Tandem drive:

Here belt tension estimated to be high; the angle of wrap is increased by adopting tandem drives. Both of tandem pulleys are driven. The tandem drive with arc of contact from 300° to 480° or more can operate with one or two motors. The location of such drive is usually determined by the physical requirements of the plant and structural constraints.

Special Drive:

Special drives with snub pulleys and pressure belts used in heavy and long conveyors.