Posted tagged ‘transfer’

INFRARED CURVING

August 23, 2011

01-infrared curing process-infrared spectrum wave-conduction, convection, radiation

The coatings and paint industries strive to provide high technology coatings while reducing volatile organic compounds and energy consumption to produce a finished coating. Conventionally Convection ovens are used to cure the coatings. But this process which uses electric heaters is not an optimal process and is associated with various disadvantages.

01-coating surface absorption-infrared energy -infrared curing

Improved technologies are available today, which can either replace or improve the convection curing process. Infrared Curing is such a technology which uses Infrared rays emitted by an Infrared emitter to provide the required cure. Infrared curing applies light energy to the part surface by direct transmission from an emitter. Some of the energy emitted will be reflected off the surface, some is absorbed into the polymer and some is transmitted into the substrate.

01-reduced cycle times on final cure-eliminating manual rack up time

This direct transfer of energy creates an immediate reaction in the polymer and cross linking begins quickly once the surface is exposed to the emitter. Infrared emitters are often custom manufactured to suit the production demand. The various aspects of Infrared curing and convection curing and the possibility of combining these two technologies into a singe system will be discussed in this seminar.

01-infrared wave-infrared heating-infrared emitter-infrared curing

How it Works

Infrared heating is a direct form of heating. The source of the heat (the infrared emitter or lamp) radiates: energy that is absorbed by the product directly from the emitter. That is, the heat energy is not transferred through an intermediate medium. This is one reason for  the  inherent high-energy efficiency of infrared systems. For  example, hot air heating  first needs to heat air; the air then heats the product by convection.

01-infrared emitter-infrared curing systems

Infrared  energy is directed  to  the  product. When  the  product absorbs this energy, it is then converted into heat. Infrared energy is dispersed from the source in much the same  way as visible light. Exposed product surfaces easily absorb  the  infrared  energy and  become  heated. Therefore, heating effectiveness is related to line-of-sight between the source and the product. Depending on the coating and/or product substrate material, this heat is further thermally conducted.


01-table-characteristics of commercially used infrared heat sources

The ability of the product to absorb energy is also known as its “emissivity”. A theoretical body that absorbs all energy is termed a “black body”. A black body has an emissivity of 1. A highly reflective body would have a low emissivity value, approaching 0. (Reflectivity is the inverse of emissivity).

The potential of a product to become heated with infrared is related to the following:
• Watt density (total output power) of the source
• Wavelength (temperature) of the source
• Distance from the source to the product
• Reflective characteristics of the oven cavity
• Air movement and temperature in the oven
• Time product is exposed to the source
• Ratio of exposed surface area to the mass of the product
• Specific heat of the product
• Emissivity of the product
• Thermal conductivity of the product

CURING

Curing is a process of baking surface coatings so as to dry them up quickly. Curing is a broad term which means all the techniques employed for the finishing operations incurred during part production. Curing essentially involves either the melting of the coating or evaporation of volatile fluids present in the coating by the application of heat energy.

Curing is given to a wide range of materials both organic and inorganic. Usually curing is given to materials like ,

” Paints
” Enamel
” Liquor
” Powder coatings
” Varnishes
” Epoxy coatings
” Acrylic coatings
” Primers Etc.

Curing is also given to Rubber and Latex .The principle used for curing can also be used for drying rice and grains.

01-infrared technology-infrared-convection systems-tunnel system

CONVECTION CURING

Convection ovens are usually used for curing purposes. Traditional convection ovens use heated forced air to provide the necessary cure. Convection ovens consist of a chamber lined on the inside with Electric heaters. The shape of the chamber will be in accordance to the shape or geometry of the part being cured. A series of blowers circulate the heated air around providing the required cure. This process depends on convection to transfer heat from hot air to body surface and conduction to transfer heat to the interior of the surface. The air being delivered is held at temperature using closed-loop control, which provides predictable, repeatable results. Typically a temperature of around 250-500 degree Fahrenheit is required for paint or powder. Though convection ovens are widely used today they have certain disadvantages, which chokes the overall productivity of a company
Disadvantages of convection ovens :

” Fairly long heating times:-

Convection is a slow process. It takes a considerable amount of time for the heaters to heat up and raise the temperature of air to the required level. This causes a lag in the process and hence the curing time increases. Longer curing time spells reduced assembly line movement. This in turn reduces productivity.

” High energy consumption:-

A convection column dryer uses around 2000 BTU(British Thermal Unit) of energy to remove 1 pound of moisture. They use around 7.7 KW of electrical energy to dry a ton of rice. These are significantly larger figures for any company trying to bring energy consumption under control. The additional use of blowers and compressors further increases energy consumption.

” Large floor area required:-

Convection ovens are bulky in nature. Due to the presence of compressors and blowers, additional space is needed, which in turn increases the floor area requirement.

” Air circulation is required:-

Convection heating requires a medium for transmission of heat. Hence blowers are employed for good circulation of heated air. This increases the overall cost of the equipment.

CONVEYOR LAYOUT

August 23, 2011

Conveyor layouts:

Belt conveyors can be designed for practically any desired path of travel. It should be noted that transfer between conveyors should be avoided where possible due to additional wear on the belts at the loading points. Some of the profiles shown below:

Horizontal Conveyor

01-belt conveyor for mining-horizontal belt conveyor-belt conveyor inclination-belt conveyor layout-belt conveyor lacing

01-belt conveyor layouts-horizontal belt conveyor-belt conveyor types-airplane conveyor belt-belt conveyor horizontal curves

01-belt conveyor loading-horizontal belt conveyor-belt conveyor bulk material handling-belt conveyor construction

 


 

Decline Conveyor

01-decline belt conveyor-belt conveyor capacity calculation-belt conveyor counter weight-belt conveyor brake

01-layout of belt conveyor-types of belt conveyors-belt conveyor roller design-belt conveyor notes

01-types of belt conveyor-belt conveyor accessories-v belt conveyor-conveyor v belt pulleys-conveyor belt friction-conveyor rollers

Inclined Conveyor

01-belt conveyor equipment-belt conveyor drawing-belt conveyor equations-belt conveyor frame

01-belt conveyor for mining-belt conveyor gantry- belt conveyor head pulley-belt conveyor length

01-inclined belt conveyor-belt conveyor types-belt conveyor width- belt conveyor wide-belt conveyor weigh scales

Overland Conveyor

01-belt conveyor lift-belt conveyor links-belt conveyor inspection-belt conveyor examples-belt conveyor construction

CONVEYOR LAYOUT

August 23, 2011

Conveyor layouts:

Belt conveyors can be designed for practically any desired path of travel. It should be noted that transfer between conveyors should be avoided where possible due to additional wear on the belts at the loading points. Some of the profiles shown below:

Horizontal Conveyor

01-belt conveyor for mining-horizontal belt conveyor-belt conveyor inclination-belt conveyor layout-belt conveyor lacing

01-belt conveyor layouts-horizontal belt conveyor-belt conveyor types-airplane conveyor belt-belt conveyor horizontal curves

01-belt conveyor loading-horizontal belt conveyor-belt conveyor bulk material handling-belt conveyor construction

 


 

Decline Conveyor

01-decline belt conveyor-belt conveyor capacity calculation-belt conveyor counter weight-belt conveyor brake

01-layout of belt conveyor-types of belt conveyors-belt conveyor roller design-belt conveyor notes

01-types of belt conveyor-belt conveyor accessories-v belt conveyor-conveyor v belt pulleys-conveyor belt friction-conveyor rollers

Inclined Conveyor

01-belt conveyor equipment-belt conveyor drawing-belt conveyor equations-belt conveyor frame

01-belt conveyor for mining-belt conveyor gantry- belt conveyor head pulley-belt conveyor length

01-inclined belt conveyor-belt conveyor types-belt conveyor width- belt conveyor wide-belt conveyor weigh scales

Overland Conveyor

01-belt conveyor lift-belt conveyor links-belt conveyor inspection-belt conveyor examples-belt conveyor construction

3D SIMULATION

August 23, 2011

01-design challenges in the automotive sector-product design-surface design-new product development-FEA solutions-concept design

Design Validation:

  • Accelerate new product development
  • Switch to alternate or cheaper material
  • Reduce Prototyping costs
  • Improve product quality and performance
  • Enhance reliability

01-design validation need-Solidworks COSMOS design validation-engineering design challenges


Responding To Design Challenges:

  • Improve complex product designs
    • Enhanced function and performance
    • Meet product specification and / or regulation

01-life cycle simulation-CAE-multi body dynamics-flexible body-Product life cycle management-PLM software-Solidworks-COSMOS-design optimization-FE modeling

  • Reduce Re-Design
    • Design right first time
    • Weight and shape optimization
  • Early problem detection and correction
    • Avoid field failures
    • Study alternative designs
  • Greater product quality
    • Efficient and reliable
    • Reduced liability

CAE Solutions:

01-validate design with FEA-Finite Element Analysis-Design optimization-verify design function and intent-FEM

  • Development of indigenous technologies and products
  • Enumeration of methods for Analysis to test correlations
  • Procedure for Failure mode and Prediction and Life Calculations
  • Value Addition and Value Engineering (VAVE)
  • Reduction in Cost and Product development time
  • Elimination of Performance problems
  • Improvement in performance efficiency

COSMOS Salient Features:

01-design validation software-Solidworks-cosmos simulation-FEA Analysis-Stress Analysis-Finite Element Analysis-Simplify Design analysis

  • Theory in Finite Element Analysis including procedure for performing FEA
  • Practical solution to complex problems involving multi-domain interaction
  • Correlation to real world problems and phenomena
  • Advanced training on Fatigue, Non-Linear FEA and Vibrations

Why COSMOS for Design Validation:

01-solidworks-cosmos-design star-solidworks simulation-cosmos fea-cosmosworks-cosmos design validation

  • CAD Integrated Design validation
  • Easy to use and Shorter Learning Curve
  • Evaluate multiple Design scenarios in one stroke
  • Integrated Kinematic Analysis using Cosmos Motion
  • Seamless transfer of loading from COSMOS Motion to COSMOS  Works for FEA
  • Multi Domain Analysis in Integrated CAD Environment

SolidWorks / COSMOS Simulation benefits:

  • Easy-to-Use Simulation toolset – Enables designers to concentrate on designs not tools
  • Automatic Report Generation
  • Multiple configurations of designs can be studied automatically – enables Design of Experiments
  • Unlimited Model size – limited only by Computational resources
  • True Contact simulation for accurate load transfer
  • Sensors and Probes to compare results with Real-World Test Data
  • Fast, Accurate and Reliable – Backed by almost 3 Decades of experience

3D SIMULATION

August 23, 2011

01-design challenges in the automotive sector-product design-surface design-new product development-FEA solutions-concept design

Design Validation:

  • Accelerate new product development
  • Switch to alternate or cheaper material
  • Reduce Prototyping costs
  • Improve product quality and performance
  • Enhance reliability

01-design validation need-Solidworks COSMOS design validation-engineering design challenges


Responding To Design Challenges:

  • Improve complex product designs
    • Enhanced function and performance
    • Meet product specification and / or regulation

01-life cycle simulation-CAE-multi body dynamics-flexible body-Product life cycle management-PLM software-Solidworks-COSMOS-design optimization-FE modeling

  • Reduce Re-Design
    • Design right first time
    • Weight and shape optimization
  • Early problem detection and correction
    • Avoid field failures
    • Study alternative designs
  • Greater product quality
    • Efficient and reliable
    • Reduced liability

CAE Solutions:

01-validate design with FEA-Finite Element Analysis-Design optimization-verify design function and intent-FEM

  • Development of indigenous technologies and products
  • Enumeration of methods for Analysis to test correlations
  • Procedure for Failure mode and Prediction and Life Calculations
  • Value Addition and Value Engineering (VAVE)
  • Reduction in Cost and Product development time
  • Elimination of Performance problems
  • Improvement in performance efficiency

COSMOS Salient Features:

01-design validation software-Solidworks-cosmos simulation-FEA Analysis-Stress Analysis-Finite Element Analysis-Simplify Design analysis

  • Theory in Finite Element Analysis including procedure for performing FEA
  • Practical solution to complex problems involving multi-domain interaction
  • Correlation to real world problems and phenomena
  • Advanced training on Fatigue, Non-Linear FEA and Vibrations

Why COSMOS for Design Validation:

01-solidworks-cosmos-design star-solidworks simulation-cosmos fea-cosmosworks-cosmos design validation

  • CAD Integrated Design validation
  • Easy to use and Shorter Learning Curve
  • Evaluate multiple Design scenarios in one stroke
  • Integrated Kinematic Analysis using Cosmos Motion
  • Seamless transfer of loading from COSMOS Motion to COSMOS  Works for FEA
  • Multi Domain Analysis in Integrated CAD Environment

SolidWorks / COSMOS Simulation benefits:

  • Easy-to-Use Simulation toolset – Enables designers to concentrate on designs not tools
  • Automatic Report Generation
  • Multiple configurations of designs can be studied automatically – enables Design of Experiments
  • Unlimited Model size – limited only by Computational resources
  • True Contact simulation for accurate load transfer
  • Sensors and Probes to compare results with Real-World Test Data
  • Fast, Accurate and Reliable – Backed by almost 3 Decades of experience

INDUCTIVE CHARGING

August 23, 2011

02-powermat-iphone-4-wireless-battery-charger-wireless charging mat-wireless receiver case-new wireless technology

In the future all electronic devices will be wirelessly powered. Small, battery-powered gadgets make powerful computing portable.

The battery charger should be capable of charging the most common battery types found in portable  devices today.  In addition, the charging  should be  controlled from the base station and a bidirectional communication system between  the pickups  and base  station  should be developed.


Inductive Power Systems:

Inductive Power Transfer (IPT)  refers to the concept of transferring electrical power between two isolated circuits across an air gap.  While based on the work and concepts developed by pioneers such as  Faraday and Ampere, it  is  only recently that IPT has been developed into working systems.

Essentially, an IPT system can be divided into two parts;

  • Primary and
  • Secondary.

The primary side of the system is made up of a resonant power supply and a coil. This power supply produces a high frequency sinusoidal current in the coil.  The secondary side (or ‘pickup’) has a smaller coil, and a converter to produce a DC voltage.

01-ecoupled wirelss charging technology-inductive coupling-keep battery life higher-concept-illustration

Working of Inductive Power Transfer:

In this system communications signals are encoded onto the waveform that provides power to the air gap. Communication from the primary side to the secondary is implemented by switching the power signal at the output of the resonant converter between its normal level  and a lower level which is detectable by the pickup but still provides enough power to control the pickup microcontroller. This process is called Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK). This is achieved by varying the output voltage of the buck converter which provides an input DC voltage to the resonant converter.

01-electric vehicles-charging-batteries-wireless charging of electric cars-Delphi_Witricity_Wireless

Communication from the secondary to the primary is achieved by a process called Load Shift Keying (LSK).  This involves varying the loading on the pickup.   Any load on the pickup will reflect a voltage on the primary circuit proportional to the load.  Therefore a variation in the load on the pickup can be detected by the charging station.

The communications system must provide two discrete levels of voltage reflected onto the primary side,  to represent the on and off states for digital communications. The difference must be easily detected on the primary side to provide a robust communications channel. Signals are decoded by simple filters and comparators which feed a  digital signal to the microcontrollers.

Advantages:

EV wireless charging parking 9-29

IPT has a number of advantages over other power transfer methods  – it is unaffected by dirt, dust, water, or chemicals.  In situations such as coal mining IPT prevents sparks and other hazards.  As the coupling is magnetic, there is no risk of electrocution even when used in high power systems.  This makes IPT very suitable for  transport  systems where vehicles follow a fixed track,  such as  in factory materials handling.

SKYACTIV TECHNOLOGY

August 23, 2011

01-2012-Mazda3-Skyactiv-Image-PETROL ENGINE-AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

Highlights of the SKYACTIV technologies:

  • SKYACTIV-G: a next-generation highly-efficient direct-injection gasoline engine with the world’s highest compression ratio of 14.0:1
  • SKYACTIV-D: a next-generation clean diesel engine with the world’s lowest compression ratio of 14.0:1
  • SKYACTIV-Drive: a next-generation highly-efficient automatic transmission
  • A next-generation manual transmission with a light shift feel, compact size and significantly reduced weight
  • A next-generation lightweight, highly-rigid body with outstanding crash safety performance
  • A next-generation high-performance lightweight chassis that balances precise handling with a comfortable ride


– First product to be equipped with SKYACTIV technology will be a Mazda Demio featuring an improved, fuel-efficient, next-generation direct-injection engine that achieves fuel economy of 30 km/L.

01-inline-skyactiv-technologies-chASSIS DESIGN-BODY DESIGN-DRIVE DESIGN-DIRECT INJECTION GASOLINE ENGINE


Overview of the SKYACTIV technologies

1. SKYACTIV-G
A next-generation highly-efficient direct-injection gasoline engine that achieves the world’s highest gasoline engine compression ratio of 14.0:1 with no abnormal combustion (knocking)
  • The world’s first gasoline engine for mass production vehicles to achieve a high compression ratio of 14.0:1
  • Significantly improved engine efficiency thanks to the high compression combustion, resulting in 15 percent increases in fuel efficiency and torque
  • Improved everyday driving thanks to increased torque at low- to mid-engine speeds
  • A 4-2-1 exhaust system, cavity pistons, multi hole injectors and other innovations enable the high compression ratio
2. SKYACTIV-D
A next-generation clean diesel engine that will meet global emissions regulations without expensive NOx after treatments — urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) — thanks to the world’s lowest diesel engine compression ratio of 14.0:1
  • 20 percent better fuel efficiency thanks to the low compression ratio of 14.0:1
  • A new two-stage turbocharger realizes smooth and linear response from low to high engine speeds, and greatly increases low- and high-end torque (up to the 5,200 rpm rev limit)
  • Complies with global emissions regulations (Euro6 in Europe, Tier2Bin5 in North America, and the Post New Long-Term Regulations in Japan), without expensive NOx after treatment
3. SKYACTIV-Drive
A next-generation highly efficient automatic transmission that achieves excellent torque transfer efficiency through a wider lock-up range and features the best attributes of all transmission types
  • Combines all the advantages of conventional automatic transmissions, continuously variable transmissions, and dual clutch transmissions
  • A dramatically widened lock-up range improves torque transfer efficiency and realizes a direct driving feel that is equivalent to a manual transmission
  • A 4-to-7 percent improvement in fuel economy compared to the current transmission
4. SKYACTIV-MT
A light and compact next-generation manual transmission with crisp and light shift feel like that of a sports car, optimized for a front-engine front-wheel-drive layout
  • Short stroke and light shift feel
  • Significantly reduced size and weight due to a revised structure
  • More efficient vehicle packaging thanks to its compact size
  • Improved fuel economy due to reduced internal friction
5. SKYACTIV-Body
A next-generation lightweight, highly-rigid body with outstanding crash safety performance and high rigidity for greater driving pleasure
  • High rigidity and lightness (8 percent lighter, 30 percent more rigid)
  • Outstanding crash safety performance and lightness
  • A “straight structure” in which each part of the frame is configured to be as straight as possible. Additionally, a “continuous framework” approach was adopted in which each section functions in a coordinated manner with the other connecting sections
  • Reduced weight through optimized bonding methods and expanded use of high-tensile steel
6. SKYACTIV-Chassis
A next-generation high-performance lightweight chassis that balances precise handling with a comfortable ride feel to realize driving pleasure
  • Newly developed front strut and rear multilink suspension ensures high rigidity and lightness (The entire chassis is 14 percent lighter than the previous version.)
  • Mid-speed agility and high-speed stability — enhanced ride quality at all speeds achieved through a revision of the functional allocation of all the suspension and steering components