Posted tagged ‘type’

AUTOMOBILE ENGINES

September 10, 2011

The working of an automobile engine follows the same principle as an internal combustion engine. Air, from outside, enters the engine through the air cleaner and reaches the throttle plate.
The pedal in your car is the control for the amount of air that you would want to be taken in, and you control it by pressing on this gas pedal.
The air is then distributed through the intake manifold of the cylinders.

At some point fuel is injected into the air stream, and the mixture vaporizes and is drawn into the cylinders as they start their intake stroke.

This way, when the cylinder has reached its bottom, it has drawn in sufficient mixture. As it moves up, compressing the mixture, the spark plug ignites the mixture, and as the powerful gas formed expands, it pushes the cylinder to the bottom with the cylinder once again drawing in the mixture.

In designing automobile engines, you need to be a specialist in automobile engineering.
The consideration that is taken while designing such an engine is whether it should be a carburetor or a diesel one. carburetor engines are most commonly found in passenger cars and low capacity trucks, while trucks with a capacity over two tons are fitted with diesel engines, including dump trucks, trailer tractors and bus.

Increasingly the medium and low-capacity vehicles are being fitted with diesel engines, since the fuel consumption of these engines are 30% to 50% lower than the carburetor engines.
Diesel engines not only cost more, but maintenance is much more expensive than the other type of engine. Diesels require more metal parts per kilowatt.
The critical parts of diesel engines are made of alloy steel, and the fuel injection system is much more expensive than carburetor engines.

However, the cost of manufacturing carburetor engines has increased with the use of higher mechanical grade components, considering the thermal loads of the material used. At the same time the use of high alloys and increase in production costs have contributed to the higher price of such engines.

There is a sharp rise in using aluminum alloys in design of carburetor engines in passenger cars, and with the use of high octane petrol, the cost of operation of these cars have come down extensively. Using alloy steel in constructing the engine body and other parts of the engine, makes the car lighter and hence fuel consumption goes down substantially.

The main parts that are made of high steel alloy are the main casting of the engine, the cylinder head, water and oil pumps, oil filter housing, end covers of the generator and starter, and the intake pipes. It has been observed that by using high steel alloys, the weight of the car is reduced by 35%.

The power per liter, per unit of piston area, and the brake effective pressure are 6% to 8% lower in air-cooled engines, compared to engines having liquid cooling mechanism. This is due to the fact that in engines with liquid cooling there are great losses in cylinder charging caused by the high temperature in pipes, ducts in the head, cylinder walls and head, etc.

The size of air cooled engines are much bigger than the engines with liquid cooling having the same capacity, and this is because the cylinder axes difference is larger in air-cooled engines. Taking account of the radiator dimensions, if both engines are compared, the air-cooled engine will vary slightly with its height a little longer than or approximately the same length as the water-cooled engine. As far as the width and the height is concerned both engines are about the same.

The auxiliary units of the feed and ignition, and generator and starter systems are a bit difficult to fit on the body of the air-cooled engines, because of the presence of hoods and having a danger of over-heating.

Design of Screw Conveyor

September 8, 2011

01-screw conveyor-screw conveyor design-screw conveyor design calculations-screw conveyor housing- screw conveyor flights- screw conveyor formulae- screw conveyor flow rates

The size of screw conveyor depends on two factors

1. The capacity of the conveyor

2. The lump size of the material to be conveyed (Maximum dimensions of the particle)

Usually there are three ranges of lump sizes which are considered for selection of screw size. These are:

· A mixture of lumps and fines in which not more than 10% are lumps ranging from maximum size to one half of the maximum, and 90% are lumps smaller than one half of the maximum size.

· A mixture of lump and fines in which not more than 25% are lumps ranging from the maximum size to one half of the maximum, and 75% are lumps smaller than one half of the maximum size.

· A mixture of lump only in which 95% or more are lumps ranging from maximum size to one half of the maximum size and 5% or less are lumps less than one tenth of the maximum size.

The allowable size of a lump in a screw conveyor is a function of the radial clearance between the outside diameter of the central pipe and the radius of the inside of the screw trough, as well as the proportion of the lumps in the mixture.

The lump size of the material affects the selection of screw diameter which should be at least 12 times larger than the lump size of a sized material and four times larger than the largest lumps of an un-sized material.

Example, if screw diameter is 250mm means radial clearance is 105mm, & Maximum lump size is 60mm of 10% lumps.

Capacity of Screw Conveyor:

01-screw conveyor capacity calculation-screw conveyor manufacturers-screw conveyor shaft- screw conveyor capacity- screw conveyor components- screw conveyor bearings

 

The capacity of a screw conveyor depends on the screw diameter, screw pitch, speed of the screw and the loading efficiency of the cross sectional area of the screw. The capacity of a screw conveyor with a continuous screw:

Q = V. ρ

Q = 60. (π/4).D2.S.n.ψ.ρ.C

Where,

Q = capacity of a screw conveyor

V = Volumetric capacity in m3/Hr

ρ = Bulk density of the material, kg/m3

D = Nominal diameter of Screw in m

S = Screw pitch in m

N = RPM of screw

Ψ = Loading efficiency of the screw

C = Factor to take into account the inclination of the conveyor

 

Screw Pitch:

Commonly the screw pitch is taken equal to the diameter of the screw D. However it may range 0.75 – 1.0 times the diameter of the screw.

 

 

 

 

01-screw conveyor pitch- screw conveyor inlet- screw conveyor output- screw conveyor blade- screw conveyor motor

Screw Diameter:

 

Nominal Size D Trough height from center of screw shaft to upper edge of the trough Trough width C Thickness of Tough Tubular shaft (d1 * Thickness)

Outside diameter of solid shaft

Coupling diameter of shaft
Heavy Duty Medium Duty Light Duty
100 63 120 2 1.6 33.7*2.5 30 25
125 75 145 2 1.6 33.7*2.5 30 25
160 90 180 5 3.15 1.6 42.4*2.5 35 40
200 112 220 5 3.15 2 48.3*3.5 40 40
250 140 270 5 3.15 2 60.3*4 50 50
315 180 335 5 3.15 76.1*5 60 50
400 224 420 5 3.15 76.1*5 60 75
500 280 530 5 3.15 88.9*5 70 75

RPM of Screw:

The usual range of RPM of screw is 10 to 165. It depends on the diameter of screw and the type of material (Max RPM of screw conveyor is 165)

Loading efficiency:

The value of loading efficiency should be taken large for materials which are free flowing and non abrasive, while for materials which are not free flowing and or abrasive in nature, the value should be taken low:

Ψ = 0.12 to 0.15 for abrasive material

= 0.25 to 0.3 for mildly abrasive material

= 0.4 to 0.45 for non abrasive free flowing materials

Inclination Factor:

The inclination factor C is determined by the angle of screw conveyor with the horizontal.

 

Angle of screw with the horizontal 10° 15° 20°
Value of factor C 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.65

Types of screw flight:

The screw of the conveyor may be right hand or left hand, the right hand type being the usual design. The threads of the screw may be single, double or triple.

The flight of the screws may be made in either of the two ways:

1. As Helicoids

2. As Sectional flight

Helicoids Flight:

They are formed from a flat bar or strip into a continues helix. The threads are thinner at the outer edge and thicker at the inner edge.

01-screw conveyor types- screw conveyor trough- screw conveyor theory- screw conveyor thrust bearings- screw conveyor torque-helicoid flights-continues helix-flight of screws

Sectional flights:

Sectional flights are formed from a flat disc and the thickness of the thread is uniform throughout. A continuous helix is made by joining a number of sectional flights together on a piece of pipe and butt welded them. Various styles of screw flights are in use, depending on the service required.

01- screw conveyor technology- screw conveyor incline- screw conveyor introduction- screw conveyor inlet- screw conveyor information- screw conveyor output-sectional flights-continuous helix-short pitch

Some of the typical configurations are:

1. Short pitch or continuous flight:

If the conveyor is required to handle dry granular or powdered materials that do not pack, this style of flight may be selected. It is of regular construction and recommended for inclined conveyors having a slope of 20 or more, including vertical conveyors. This style is extensively used as feeder screw.

2. Ribbon flight:

If the conveyor is to handle lumpy, clinging, sticky, gummy or viscous substances, this type flight may be selected. It consists of continuous helical flight formed from steel bar and secured to the pipe by supporting lugs.

01-screw conveyor part- screw conveyor pitch- screw conveyor power- screw conveyor length- screw conveyor layout- screw conveyor lift- screw conveyor loading-ribbon flight-cut flight

3. Cut flight:

In this type of flight screws have notches cut in the periphery of the flight. These notches supplement the conveying with moderate mixing action. They are recommended for conveyors required to handle light, fine, granular or flaky materials.

01-screw conveyor length- screw conveyor layout- screw conveyor lift- screw conveyor loading-cut flight-screw flight-sectional flight

4. Cut and folded flights:

This type of flight is characterized by notches as in cut flight, together with folded segments. This type of flight creates agitation and aeration resulting in better mixing. This type of flight is used to handle light or medium weight materials having fine, granular or flaky materials.

5. Some screw conveyors have cut flight with paddles mounted at regular intervals. The paddles counteract the flow of material past the flight resulting in greater agitation and mixing.

6. Sometimes screws are made of stainless steel to suit special requirements, like the sanitation requirements for handling food, drugs and other hygienic materials.

Some posts need no title…!!

August 23, 2011

It’s 12th august , A Friday ,The day suddenly i took the task of completing my tour memoirs..Don’t know why suddenly i took that thing…!!

I’ve tried so many times but without completion..!
I know i’m pretty good at taking initiations and taking first leap…
But hell is that i can’t live upto expectations when it comes to execution..!!
I do remember a person when i talk about the start of proceedings for Industrial tour..!!
That day
In December,2010… i think
I was seriously googling for some books (of course i don’t read’em…But i used to maintain a good collection of E-Books…!!)
I got a message on my Gtalk Gadget ” Do You know Civil people are booking their train tickets for their Industrial tour..!!”
oh is it…
okay lets c…
some one will take a forward leap in our class lets follow him(There is a reason for not including HER here…!!)…
after few days @ After Lunch Discussion
I had a discussion regarding this tour with Abbas ,Sasidhar,Mahendra…
Few people who got interest in arranging such type of events…
I’m fortunate have such a bunch of good organizers…
People like them took such tasks with huge responsibility…
and they are really good team players…!!
i really love working with them.!
There are people who bank upon the people behind curtain…
they don’t do much work but they do indulge in things at eleventh hour ..!!
These people should be appreciated when compared to those people who crack jokes on The Organizers…!!
at last after so many days we have finalized the places and dates
and the faculty ,permissions, Money etc…
But still there is one task to be completed ” making the total count to 40″
While trying to reach 40
we came across some Strange situations and some PECULIAR people…!
One said ” My grand pa is seriously ill”
can’t comment on such reasons…
the person’s been perfectly polite i(we) cudn’t question Honesty…!!
One couldn’t blame other people’s family responsibilities..!!
Another guy
the most awful case
” I tried to call and convince my dad to permit me…
and the network people saying that it was wrong dialed…
Suddenly i remembered that I FORGOT MY DAD’S Phone Number..”
Dumbstruck at the very moment….
Thank god i’m still alive….
And this thing happened to our beloved XCr suddenly offered his helping hand and we were delighted…!!
I thought owing to cold war between us
they may remain as audience…
but no
they came forward…!!
Another guy
pirated emotions…
I was cursed with the ability to guess intentions of people from their eyes….
Lips can lie while eyes can’t…
i cant guess exactly but i can suspect mismatch between words and expressions…!!
Anyway after so many Adventures and differentiations The tour started ..!!
I have had written till the PRASHATHI XPRESS dropeed us at B’lore-Yeshwanthpura Rail station @12 noon…!!
A Guy from the travel company came and received us ….Soon we packed our luggage, baggage into the luxury bus that had been arranged for us …!!
Started off to The Central Manufacturing Technology Insti(CMTI), CVRaman Nagar.!

JIB CRANE

August 23, 2011

Jib crane have the following motions:

    1. Hoisting motion
    2. Derricking or luffing motion
    3. Slewing motion
    4. Long travel motion

Hoisting motion:

It is used to lift or lower the load. This is usually achieved by steel wire ropes being affixed to a crane hook or a grab hanging from the outer end of the jib. The rope is applied through some receiving arrangement and controlled and operated by a winch system.

01-crane hoist-tower crane-electric hoist-jib crane motion-to lift or lower the load-steel wire ropes

Derricking or Luffing motion:

It is imparted to the inclined member or the jib to move in a vertical plane so that the angle of the jib may be changed in order to bring the load line nearer to or further off from the centre of the crane.

01-derricking motion-luffing motion-of jib cranes-jib move in vertical plane

Slewing motion:

It is imparted to the whole super structure of the crane including the jib, so that it can turn about a central pivot shaft w.r.t. the non-revolving parts. This motion enables the crane to shift the load line to revolve round the crane.

01-wall mounted jib crane-for handling light weight materials-slewing motion

Long Travel Motion:

It may be required when the whole crane structure has to be shifted to a distant place along a rail track or along a road.

01-crawler mounted mobile jib cranes-travelling type jib cranes-power driven cranes-long travel motion

Jib crane consists of an inclined member supported by a rope or any other type of structural member attached to a vertical mast or frame. Load is usually suspended from the outer end of this inclined mast. The outreach of the jib may be fixed or variable. The cranes as a whole may be either fixed or moveable. Various sub-classification of these cranes are possible.

Lifting capacity of such cranes may vary from 1/2 ton to 200 ton and outreach from a few meter to 50 meter. Such cranes find various applications in port area, construction site, and other outdoor works.

For handling general cargo, lifting capacities are usually 1  1/2 ton to  5 ton with maximum outreach of 30 meter. Jib Cranes provided with grabbing facilities have usually a capacity ranging from 3 to 20 tons operating 50 to 100 cycles per hour. Lifting heights may be 30 meters or more.

Jib crane used in ship yards for lifting heavy machinery and equipment, weighing 100 to 300 tons, are usually mounted on pontoons. Frequently these cranes are provided with two main hoisting winches which can be employed singly or together to lift a load. For handling light loads these cranes may have auxiliary arrangement.

Types Of Jib Crane:

Depending on the use, jib cranes are classified into a number of varieties, primarily on the basis of their mountings.

These are:

    1. Hand Operated Scotch Derrick Type
    2. Wall Mounted Jib crane
    3. Portal / Semi-portal cranes of different varieties-Wharf cranes
    4. Mobile jib cranes consisting of truck mounted and crawler mounted cranes

Scotch Derrick Type / Wall Cranes:

01-wall mounted jib crane-for handling light weight materials

Wall cranes are used in ware houses for handling light weight and when there is little or no wharf between them and the water front. Slewing or rotational motion of the crane is possible within restricted angle and the motion is slow. Hoisting and lifting speeds are comparable to those of wharf cranes. In some modified version these cranes can have travelling speed along the wall.

01-scotch derrick cranes-hand operated jib crane

Wharf Cranes:

These are used in shipyard and port for handling unit and bulk load. These are usually self propelled balanced level luffing type with full circle slewing motion facility. Wharf cranes may be of different types, depending on the type of structure on which it is mounted.  The choice of structure for mounting depends on site condition.

01-wharf cranes-semi portal cranes-full portal cranes-jib cranes-girders connected at both the ends

The principal types of wharf cranes are:

  • High pedestal
  • Full Portal
  • Semi-portal

Portal Cranes:

Portal crane is a fixed or revolving type jib crane mounted on a portal frame fixed in location or arranged to travel along a fixed track of rails at the same level. The portal frame consists essentially of horizontal girders connected at both ends to vertical or inclined member’s having equal lengths.

Semi portal Crane:

Semi portal crane is a fixed or revolving type jib crane mounted on a semi portal frame fixed in location or arranged to travel along a fixed track or rails at different levels. The semi portal frame essentially consists of horizontal girders connected at both ends to vertical or inclined members which constitute a shorter side and a longer side. The shorter members may consist only of the trolley running along the elevated rail.

01-semi portal cranes-full portal cranes-wharf crane-types of jib crane

Mobile crane:

Mobile Crane ( Power Driven ) includes all type of travelling jib cranes, such as truck mounted, crawler mounted, locomotive crane on rails.

01-crawler mounted mobile jib cranes-travelling type jib cranes-power driven cranes

 

01-mobile cranes-travelling jib cranes-Truck mounted jib crane

CONVEYOR

August 23, 2011

Conveyor Take-up Arrangement:

01-belt conveyor-take up arrangement-screw take up-take up pulley-automatic take up device-fixed take up device-manual take up-self adjusting take up devices


All belt conveyors require the use of some form of take-up device for the following reasons:

  • To ensure adequate tension of the belt leaving the drive pulley so as to avoid any slippage of the belt
  • To ensure proper belt tension at the loading and other points along the conveyor
  • To compensate for changes in belt length due to elongation
  • To provide extra length of belt when necessary for splicing purpose.

Usually there are two types of take up arrangements.

  • Fixed take up device that may be adjusted periodically by manual operation
  • Automatic take up devices for constant load type

In a screw take up system the take up pulley rotates in two bearing blocks which may slide on stationery guide ways with the help of two screws. The tension is created by the two screws which are tightened and periodically adjusted with a spanner. It is preferable to use screws with trapezoidal thread t decrease the effort required to tighten the belt.

01-hydraulic take up device-pneumatic take up device-electrical take up device-self adjusting take up device-automatic take up device

The main problem with the use of manual take-up is that it requires a vigilant and careful operator to observe when take up adjustment is required. Perfect tension adjustment with this system is also not possible. For this reason these devices are used only in case of short conveyors of up 60 m length and light duty.

In automatic take up arrangement the take up pulley is mounted on slides or on a trolley which is pulled backwards by means of a steel rope and deflecting pulleys. The carriage travels on guide ways mounted parallel to the longitudinal axis of the conveyor, i.e., horizontally in horizontal conveyors and at an incline in inclined conveyors. Hydraulic, pneumatic and electrical take up devices are also used.

Automatic take-up has the following features:

  • It is self adjusting and automatic
  • Greater take-up movement is possible.

MECHANICAL TESTING

August 23, 2011

Various tests:

  • Tensile Test

A tensile test, also known as a tension test, tests a material’s strength. It’s a mechanical test where a pulling force is applied to a material from both sides until the sample changes its shape or breaks. It’s is a common and important test that provides a variety of information about the material being tested, including the elongation, yield point, tensile strength, and ultimate strength of the material. Tensile tests are commonly performed on substances such as metals, plastics, wood, and ceramics.

01-Electronic_Tensile_Testing_Machine-calculate tensile strength-yield strength-ultimate strength-break value-elongation-testing steels, iron, plastics and composite materials

Tensile testing systems use a number of different units of measurement. The International System of Units, or SI, recommends the use of either Pascals (Pa) or Newtons per square meter (N/m²) for describing tensile strength. In the United States, many engineers measure tensile strength in kilo-pound per square inch (KSI).

01-TensileStrength-tensile test-Calculate Ultimate tensile strength-tensile property testing of plastics, steel, iron-material strength calculate - pascals - newton per square meter

  • Tensile test with electronic extensometer

01-electronic_extensometer-calculate proof stress - youngs modulus values-material stress-acccepts load-extension value

This instrument is to be used on Tensile or Universal testing machines to find out Proof stress & Young’s modulus values. In case of many brittle materials such as high carbon steels, alloy steels, light aluminium & magnesium alloys, it is difficult to get yield values. For such materials stress corresponding to a certain allowable amount of plastic deformation is termed as proof stress say 0.1% or 0.2% proof stress. The measuring range is up to 5mm & resolution is 0.001mm.

01-mechanical_extensometer-tensile test calculation-universal testing machine-utm

  • Tensile testing at elevated temperature.

01-tensile test at elevated temperature-high temperature tensile test-specialist tensile test

High temperature tensile testing is a procedure to test the properties of a material at above room temperature. It will determine the following parameters:

  • Tensile strength (breaking strength)
  • Yield strength
  • Elongation
  • Reduction of area

Specialist testing, measurement and control equipment is required to perform this test.
The results of such a test will provide a good indication of the static load bearing capacity of the material and therefore establishes the suitability of a material for its intended purpose.

  • Tensile test on Tor steel Bars

01-tor-steel-bar-rods-TMT steel Bars-concrete technology-durable-corrosion resistant-engineering and construction

TOR steel is one of the best grade of steel used in concrete reinforced. It’s a kind of high adherence steel. Other types of steel are used for less resistance concrete. Thermo mechanically Treated (TMT) bars are a type of corrosion resistant steel reinforcing bar used in concrete construction.

  • Bend test on plates

01-bend test on steels- cold bars -cold bend testing for steels

A bend test is used to determine whether a specific piece of metal in question will break or fracture under pressure. This is important in the construction of any project using metal, otherwise the building or the item being made could collapse from the immense pressure exerted on it. Every piece of metal made cannot be tested, therefore certain pieces are tested and if they pass, the other pieces are made using the same process. The results of a bend test are reported differently depending on the type of material tested. There is no standard method for reporting the durability that applies to all materials, rather each group has its own set by which it is judged and compared to other metals in that group.

The bend test is essentially measuring a metal’s ductility. Ductility defines how easily a metal can bend without breaking. The higher the ductility of a metal, the more it can bend without breaking or becoming deformed from its original shape. This is important because certain metals must handle pressure without snapping yet still be ductile enough to bend slightly and not lose their support or shape. Copper and steel are two metals that have a high ductility and do well under pressure.

  • Bend test on pipes

01-bend test on pipes

Bending tests are carried out to ensure that a metal has sufficient ductility to stand bending without fracturing. A standard specimen is bent through a specified arc and in the case of strip, the direction of grain flow is noted and whether the bend is with or across the grain.

  • Bend Test on Tor steel

01-wire-rods-rebend test on steels

The purpose is to make certain the weld and the base metal are properly fused, and that the weld metal and the heat affected zone (HAZ) have appropriate mechanical properties

  • Re-Bend test on Tor steel

01-wire-rods-rebend test on steels

The purpose of re-bend test is to measure the effect of strain ageing on steel. Strain ageing has embrittlement effect which takes place after cold deformation by diffusion of nitrogen in steel. Hence, there is limitation stated in some design codes to restrict the nitrogen content of steel to 0.012%.

  • Nick Break Test

01-nick break test-welding-fabrication-on sheets

The NICK-BREAK TEST is useful for determining the internal quality of the weld metal. This test reveals various internal defects (if present), such as slag inclusions,  gas  pockets,  lack of  fusion,  and  oxidized  or burned metal. To accomplish the nick-break test for checking a butt weld, you must first flame-cut the test specimens from a sample weld.

MECHANICAL TESTING

August 23, 2011

Various tests:

  • Tensile Test

A tensile test, also known as a tension test, tests a material’s strength. It’s a mechanical test where a pulling force is applied to a material from both sides until the sample changes its shape or breaks. It’s is a common and important test that provides a variety of information about the material being tested, including the elongation, yield point, tensile strength, and ultimate strength of the material. Tensile tests are commonly performed on substances such as metals, plastics, wood, and ceramics.

01-Electronic_Tensile_Testing_Machine-calculate tensile strength-yield strength-ultimate strength-break value-elongation-testing steels, iron, plastics and composite materials

Tensile testing systems use a number of different units of measurement. The International System of Units, or SI, recommends the use of either Pascals (Pa) or Newtons per square meter (N/m²) for describing tensile strength. In the United States, many engineers measure tensile strength in kilo-pound per square inch (KSI).

01-TensileStrength-tensile test-Calculate Ultimate tensile strength-tensile property testing of plastics, steel, iron-material strength calculate - pascals - newton per square meter

  • Tensile test with electronic extensometer

01-electronic_extensometer-calculate proof stress - youngs modulus values-material stress-acccepts load-extension value

This instrument is to be used on Tensile or Universal testing machines to find out Proof stress & Young’s modulus values. In case of many brittle materials such as high carbon steels, alloy steels, light aluminium & magnesium alloys, it is difficult to get yield values. For such materials stress corresponding to a certain allowable amount of plastic deformation is termed as proof stress say 0.1% or 0.2% proof stress. The measuring range is up to 5mm & resolution is 0.001mm.

01-mechanical_extensometer-tensile test calculation-universal testing machine-utm

  • Tensile testing at elevated temperature.

01-tensile test at elevated temperature-high temperature tensile test-specialist tensile test

High temperature tensile testing is a procedure to test the properties of a material at above room temperature. It will determine the following parameters:

  • Tensile strength (breaking strength)
  • Yield strength
  • Elongation
  • Reduction of area

Specialist testing, measurement and control equipment is required to perform this test.
The results of such a test will provide a good indication of the static load bearing capacity of the material and therefore establishes the suitability of a material for its intended purpose.

  • Tensile test on Tor steel Bars

01-tor-steel-bar-rods-TMT steel Bars-concrete technology-durable-corrosion resistant-engineering and construction

TOR steel is one of the best grade of steel used in concrete reinforced. It’s a kind of high adherence steel. Other types of steel are used for less resistance concrete. Thermo mechanically Treated (TMT) bars are a type of corrosion resistant steel reinforcing bar used in concrete construction.

  • Bend test on plates

01-bend test on steels- cold bars -cold bend testing for steels

A bend test is used to determine whether a specific piece of metal in question will break or fracture under pressure. This is important in the construction of any project using metal, otherwise the building or the item being made could collapse from the immense pressure exerted on it. Every piece of metal made cannot be tested, therefore certain pieces are tested and if they pass, the other pieces are made using the same process. The results of a bend test are reported differently depending on the type of material tested. There is no standard method for reporting the durability that applies to all materials, rather each group has its own set by which it is judged and compared to other metals in that group.

The bend test is essentially measuring a metal’s ductility. Ductility defines how easily a metal can bend without breaking. The higher the ductility of a metal, the more it can bend without breaking or becoming deformed from its original shape. This is important because certain metals must handle pressure without snapping yet still be ductile enough to bend slightly and not lose their support or shape. Copper and steel are two metals that have a high ductility and do well under pressure.

  • Bend test on pipes

01-bend test on pipes

Bending tests are carried out to ensure that a metal has sufficient ductility to stand bending without fracturing. A standard specimen is bent through a specified arc and in the case of strip, the direction of grain flow is noted and whether the bend is with or across the grain.

  • Bend Test on Tor steel

01-wire-rods-rebend test on steels

The purpose is to make certain the weld and the base metal are properly fused, and that the weld metal and the heat affected zone (HAZ) have appropriate mechanical properties

  • Re-Bend test on Tor steel

01-wire-rods-rebend test on steels

The purpose of re-bend test is to measure the effect of strain ageing on steel. Strain ageing has embrittlement effect which takes place after cold deformation by diffusion of nitrogen in steel. Hence, there is limitation stated in some design codes to restrict the nitrogen content of steel to 0.012%.

  • Nick Break Test

01-nick break test-welding-fabrication-on sheets

The NICK-BREAK TEST is useful for determining the internal quality of the weld metal. This test reveals various internal defects (if present), such as slag inclusions,  gas  pockets,  lack of  fusion,  and  oxidized  or burned metal. To accomplish the nick-break test for checking a butt weld, you must first flame-cut the test specimens from a sample weld.