Posted tagged ‘vernier caliper’

TERMS IN MEASUREMENT

August 23, 2011

MEASUREMENTS:

A Measurement is the outcome of an opinion formed by observers about some physical quantity.

CLASSIFICATION OF MEASUREMENTS:

• Standards –  ( Reproduce the value of given quantity )
• Fixed Gauges – (Check Dimensions)
• Measuring Instruments – (Determine the measured value)

NEEDS FOR MEASUREMENT:

1. To Determine the true dimensions of a part.

2. To increase our knowledge and understanding of the world.

3. Needed for ensuring public health and human safety.

4. To convert physical parameters into meaningful numbers.

5. To test if the elements that constitute the system function as per the design.

6. For evaluating the performance of a system.

7. For studying some basic laws of nature.

8. To ensure interchangeability with a view to promoting mass production.

9. To evaluate the response of the system to particular point.

10. To check the limitations of theory in actual situations.

11. To establish the validity of design and for finding new data and new designs.

METHODS OF MEASUREMENT:

1. Direct Comparison

2. Indirect Comparison

3. Comparative Method

4. Coincidence Method

5. Fundamental Method

6. Contact Method

7. Transposition Method

8. Complementary Method

9. Deflection Method

Direct Method:

Measurements are directly obtained.

Ex:Vernier Caliper,Scales.

Indirect Method:

Obtained by measuring other quantities.

Ex:Diameter measurement by using three wires.

Comparative Method:

It’s compared with other known value.

Ex:Comparators.

Coincidence Method:

Measurements coincide with certain lines and signals.

Fundamental Method:

Measuring a quantity directly in related with the definition of that quantity.

Contact Method:

Sensor/Measuring tip touch the surface area.

Ex:Vernier Caliper.

Transposition Method:

Quantity to be measured is first balanced by a known value and then balanced by an other new known value.

Ex:Determination of mass by balancing methods.

Complementary Method:

The value of quantity to be measured is combined with known value of the same quantity.

Ex:Volume determination by liquid displacement.

Deflection Method:

The value to be measured is directly indicated by a deflection of pointer.

Ex:Pressure Measurement.

TERMS OF MEASUREMENT:

Precision:

The ability of the instrument to reproduce it’s readings or observation again and again for constant input signal.

Accuracy:

Closeness/conformity to the true value of the quantity under measurement.

Error:

The difference between true value and measured value is known as measurement error.

Error = Vt – Vm

Reliability:

It is defined as the probability that a given system will perform it’s function adequately for it’s specified period of lifetime under specified operating conditions.

TERMS IN MEASUREMENT

August 23, 2011

MEASUREMENTS:

A Measurement is the outcome of an opinion formed by observers about some physical quantity.

CLASSIFICATION OF MEASUREMENTS:

• Standards –  ( Reproduce the value of given quantity )
• Fixed Gauges – (Check Dimensions)
• Measuring Instruments – (Determine the measured value)

NEEDS FOR MEASUREMENT:

1. To Determine the true dimensions of a part.

2. To increase our knowledge and understanding of the world.

3. Needed for ensuring public health and human safety.

4. To convert physical parameters into meaningful numbers.

5. To test if the elements that constitute the system function as per the design.

6. For evaluating the performance of a system.

7. For studying some basic laws of nature.

8. To ensure interchangeability with a view to promoting mass production.

9. To evaluate the response of the system to particular point.

10. To check the limitations of theory in actual situations.

11. To establish the validity of design and for finding new data and new designs.

METHODS OF MEASUREMENT:

1. Direct Comparison

2. Indirect Comparison

3. Comparative Method

4. Coincidence Method

5. Fundamental Method

6. Contact Method

7. Transposition Method

8. Complementary Method

9. Deflection Method

Direct Method:

Measurements are directly obtained.

Ex:Vernier Caliper,Scales.

Indirect Method:

Obtained by measuring other quantities.

Ex:Diameter measurement by using three wires.

Comparative Method:

It’s compared with other known value.

Ex:Comparators.

Coincidence Method:

Measurements coincide with certain lines and signals.

Fundamental Method:

Measuring a quantity directly in related with the definition of that quantity.

Contact Method:

Sensor/Measuring tip touch the surface area.

Ex:Vernier Caliper.

Transposition Method:

Quantity to be measured is first balanced by a known value and then balanced by an other new known value.

Ex:Determination of mass by balancing methods.

Complementary Method:

The value of quantity to be measured is combined with known value of the same quantity.

Ex:Volume determination by liquid displacement.

Deflection Method:

The value to be measured is directly indicated by a deflection of pointer.

Ex:Pressure Measurement.

TERMS OF MEASUREMENT:

Precision:

The ability of the instrument to reproduce it’s readings or observation again and again for constant input signal.

Accuracy:

Closeness/conformity to the true value of the quantity under measurement.

Error:

The difference between true value and measured value is known as measurement error.

Error = Vt – Vm

Reliability:

It is defined as the probability that a given system will perform it’s function adequately for it’s specified period of lifetime under specified operating conditions.

MECHANICAL ENGG QUESTIONS-2

August 22, 2011

• Different between technology & engineering?

Engineering is application of science. Technology shows various methods of Engineering. A bridge can be made by using beams to bear the load,by an arc or by hanging in a cable; all shows different technology but comes under civil engineering and science applied is laws of force/load distribution.

• how a diesel engine works in generator?

Diesel engine is a prime mover,for a generator,pump,and for vehicles etc.generator is connected to engine by shaft.mostly in thermal power plat ,there is an engine is used to drive generator to generate power.

• WHAT IS THE OTHER NAME OF MICROMETER & VERNIER CALLIPER

Micrometer’s other name is Screw Gauze & Vernier caliper’s other name is slide caliper.

• What is flashpoint?

Flash point: the lowest temperature at which the vapor of a combustible liquid can be ignited in air.

• what is basic difference between impulse turbine and reaction turbine?

In impulse turbine, jet is used to create impulse on blades
which rotates the turbine and in reaction turbine, no jet
is used pressure energy is converted into kinetic energy.

In impulse turbine fluid enter& leave with same energy ,but in reaction turbine fluid enter with pressure energy&
leaves with kinetic energy

In impulse turbine all the pressure drops in nozzle only &
in reaction turbine pressure drops both fixed & moving

• What is the need for drafting?

Drafting is the allowance give to casting process.it also used to remove the casting from mould without damage of
corners.

internationally for interconnecting and sealing pipe ends
by mating an external (male) with an internal (female) thread.
British Standard Whitworth (BSW) is one of a number of
imperial unit based screw thread standards which use the
same bolt heads and nut hexagonal sizes.

• What is refrigerant?

Any substance that transfers heat from one place to another,
creating a cooling effect. water is the refrigerant in absorption machines.

• The amount of carbon present in Cast Iron

Carbon is basically present in the form of cementite in cast iron.Its percentage lies in the range of 2.03-6.67(% by weight of cementite for Cast Iron.If the amount is less than the above range than it is stainless steel.

• What are the loads considered when designing the Nut and Bolts?